Aller au contenu


Avril 2023

Purpose UK head and neck cancer incidence and prevalence in working-age people are increasing. Work is important for individuals and society. Head and neck cancer survivors return to work less than other cancer survivors. Treatment affects physical and psychological functioning long-term. Evidence is limited, with no UK qualitative studies. Methods A qualitative study was conducted, underpinned by a critical realism approach, involving semi-structured interviews with working head and neck cancer survivors. Interviews were conducted using the Microsoft Teams communication platform and interpreted using reflexive thematic analysis. Results Thirteen head and neck cancer survivors participated. Three themes were drawn from the data: changed meaning of work and identity, return-to-work experiences, and the impact of healthcare professionals on returning to work. Physical, speech and psychosocial changes affected workplace interactions, including stigmatising responses by work colleagues. Conclusion Participants were challenged by returning to work. Work interactions and context influenced return-to-work success. Head and neck cancer survivors want return-to-work conversations within healthcare consultations, but perceived these as absent.

© Miller, A; Wilson, E; Diver, C. Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 1-6, 2023 Jan 11.

Purpose Supporting unemployed or work-disabled cancer survivors in their work participation can have extensive individual and societal benefits. We aimed to identify and summarise interventions for work participation of unemployed or work-disabled cancer survivors. Methods Five databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Library) were systematically searched for quantitative studies on interventions aimed at enhancing work participation of unemployed or work-disabled cancer survivors. Work participation refers to participation in the workforce, fulfilling one's work role. Manual and automatic screening (with ASReview software) were performed on titles and abstracts, followed by manual full-text screening. Data were extracted regarding study, patient and intervention characteristics, and work participation outcomes. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using the Cochrane RoB2 and QUIPS tools. Results We identified 10,771 articles, of which we included two randomised controlled trials (RCTs), of which one feasibility RCT, and three cohort studies. In total, 1862 cancer survivors were included, with predominantly breast cancer. Work participation was mainly measured as time to return to work (RTW) and RTW rate. Interventions included components of coaching (e.g., psychological or rehabilitation), training (e.g., building confidence and managing fatigue) and self-management. Two RCTs with unclear RoB did not show an effect of multicomponent interventions compared to care as usual. One cohort study found a significant effect of a psycho-educational intervention on RTW rates, with moderate RoB. The other two cohort studies, with moderate RoB, reported significant associations between components including job search and placement assistance, and work participation. Conclusion Only few interventions aimed at enhancing work participation of unemployed or work-disabled cancer survivors, have been evaluated. In two cohort studies, promising components for future multicomponent interventions were identified. However, findings suggest that more evidence is necessary on such multicomponent interventions, in which elements explicitly directed at work and including the workplace should be included.

© van Ommen F; Coenen P; Malekzadeh A; de Boer AGEM; Greidanus MA; Duijts. Acta Oncologica. 1-12, 2023 Apr 03.

Purpose Managers' actions can facilitate the return to work (RTW) process for breast cancer survivors (BCS). However, data on BCS' experiences of managers' actions regarding RTW are dispersed across multiple qualitative studies and do not offer useful insights for managers to support employees returning to work. This study aimed to summarize and map managers' actions experienced by BCS over three RTW phases (before, during, after) and categorize them as facilitating or hindering RTW. Methods A scoping review of qualitative studies was conducted. Four databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, EMBASE) were systematically searched for articles published between 2000 and 2022. Studies and participant characteristics were extracted using an excel spreadsheet. A thematic analysis with a predominantly deductive and semantic approach was conducted. Results Twenty-nine studies were included after screening 1042 records. Five themes were generated from the data. Two themes addressed the phase 'before RTW': 'managers' interpersonal skills' and 'preparing for RTW'; three in the 'during RTW' phase: 'managers' interpersonal skills', 'offering work flexibility', and 'offering work accommodations', and only one, 'paying attention to follow-up', was addressed in the 'after RTW' phase. Conclusion This review mapped managers' actions experienced by BCS in three phases of the RTW process. Results suggested that, according to BCS, managers need to mobilize specific skills to provide appropriate support during the RTW process. Further research is needed to better understand the skills underlying managers' actions facilitating the RTW process.

© Viseux M; Johnson S; Roquelaure Y; Bourdon M. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation.  2023 Mar 31.

Purpose To clarify the adaptability of cancer patients to return to work and explore its influencing factors. Methods Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting/participants: From March to October 2021, 283 cancer patients in the follow-up period were recruited from the oncology departments of four secondary and above hospitals and cancer friendship associations in Nantong city using self-developed scale of adaptability to return to work for cancer patients by convenience sampling method. Data collection & analysis: The contents included general sociodemographic data, disease-related data, cancer patients' readability to work Scale, Medical Coping Style Questionnaire, Social Support Rating Scale, Family Closeness and Readability Scale, General self-efficacy Scale and Social impact Scale. Paper questionnaires were used for face-to-face data collection, and SPSS17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Univariable analyses and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted. Results The overall score of cancer patients' adaptability to return to work was (87.05+/-20.255), (22.54+/-4.234) for the dimension of focused rehabilitation, (32.02+/-9.013) for the dimension of reconstruction effectiveness, and (32.49+/-9.023) for the dimension of adjustment planning. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the current return to full-time work (beta =0.226, P 0.05), the current return to non-full-time work (beta =0.184, P 0.05), yield response (beta = -0.132, P 0.05), and general self-efficacy (beta =0.226, P 0.05) could affect their return to work adaptation. Conclusion The results of status quo and influencing factors showed that the adaptability of cancer patients to return to work was generally higher in this study. Cancer patients who had participated in work, had lower yield coping scores and stigma scores, and higher self-efficacy scores and family adjustment and intimacy scores had better adaptability to return to work again.

© Li JM; Su XQ; Xu XP; Xue P; Guo YJ. Supportive Care in Cancer. 31(5):302, 2023 Apr 26

Mars 2023

Purpose This study aimed to evaluate employees' attitudes toward cancer, patients with cancer, and cancer survivors' return to work. Methods This study used a cross-sectional survey with online questionnaires to collect data during a 1-month period in April 2022. A stratified sampling method was used to select 237 participants. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and an independent t-test. Results The following trends were observed regarding attitudes toward cancer and patients with cancer: impossibility of recovery: 9.00 +/- 2.10 (4-16); stereotypes: 8.08 +/- 2.12 (4-16); discrimination: 6.98 +/- 2.26 (4-16); and financial instability: 7.37 +/- 1.87 (3-12). Regarding public attitudes toward cancer survivors' return to work, the following results were confirmed: gender and living with family members/acquaintances who had survived cancer significantly impacted perceptions toward cancer survivors' return to work.For both variables (gender and job type), a significant difference was observed. Men had significantly higher negative perceptions of patients with cancer and their return to work than women, and there were significant differences between professional group and labor group. Moreover, participants living with cancer survivors (either among their family members or acquaintances) showed a significant difference in terms of attitudes toward cancer and patients with cancer and a greater recognition of such survivors' return to the workplace. Conclusions Despite a reduction in social stigma attached to cancer and cancer survivors, survivors may find returning to the workplace difficult. Public efforts and strategies are necessary for increasing awareness and reducing discrimination in society. This study's results could be used as basic data for establishing a social support system in the workplace and developing policies and educational programs to increase awareness about cancer survivors' issues.

© Lee SE; Park EY. Asiapacific Journal of Oncology Nursing. 10(3):100197, 2023 Mar.

Purpose To explore the return-to-work adaptation experience and coping resources used by cancer patients. Methods With the help of the Nantong Cancer Friends Association, from June 2019 to January 2020, this study recruited 30 cancer patients who had returned to work using purpose sampling, snowball sampling and theoretical sampling. The researchers analyzed the data using initial-, focusing-, and theoretical coding. Results The adaptation of cancer patients to return-to-work is a rebuilding process by taking advantage of the available personal and external coping resources. The adaptation experience includes: focusing on rehabilitation, rebuilding self-efficacy, and adjusting plans. Conclusion Medical staff should help patients mobilize coping resources to adapt to return to work.

© Xu J; Zhou Y; Li J; Tang J; Hu X; Chen Y; Guo Y. BMC Nursing. 22(1):66, 2023 Mar 10.

Purpose This review is to explore the relevant experience of colorectal cancer survivors' return-to-work, reintegrating and analyzing the promoting factors and obstacles of colorectal cancer survivors' return-to-work. Methods This review followed PRISMA List. Databases including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, EM base, CINAHL, APA PsycInfo, Wangfang Database, CNKI and CBM from inception to October 2022 were searched to collect qualitative studies in the experience of colorectal cancer survivors' return-to-work. Article selection and data extraction were conducted by two researchers used the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tool for qualitative researches (2016) in Australia. Results Seven studies were included, the thirty-four themes distilled from the literature were grouped into eleven new categories and summed into two integrated findings: (1) facilitators to return-to-work for colorectal cancer survivors: desire and expectation for return-to-work and social dedication, economic needs, support and tolerance from employers and colleagues, work suggestions provided by professionals, health insurance policy of the workplace. (2) obstacles to return-to-work for colorectal cancer survivors: physical problems, psychological barriers, lack of family support, negative attitudes of employers and colleagues, limited information and resources available from professionals, imperfection of related policies. Conclusion This study shows that colorectal cancer survivors' return-to-work is influenced by many factors. We should pay attention to and avoid obstacles, help colorectal cancer survivors recover their physical functions and maintain a positive psychological state, improve the social support for colorectal cancer survivors to return-to-work, so as to achieve comprehensive rehabilitation as soon as possible.

© Zhao JY; Que WQ; Tang J; Li JM; Su XQ; Guo YJ. European Journal of Oncology Nursing. 63:102284, 2023 Feb 11.

Purpose To explore views of general practitioners (GPs) and occupational physicians (OPs) on the role of GPs in work guidance of cancer patients. Methods Between 2016 and 2019, two focus groups with GPs (N = 17) and two focus groups with OPs (N = 10) were conducted. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed by data-driven analysis. Results GPs generally indicated that they inquire about patients' occupations but do not structurally document these. GPs described offering support and advice to patients regarding their work, while other GPs stated they do not interfere with their patients' work or return to work (RTW) process. In general, GPs stated that they do not aspire a professional role in the work guidance of patients, due to lack of expertise and not having sufficient knowledge in work regulations and legislation. In contrast, OPs anticipated a proactive role from GPs concerning work guidance in cancer patients, and they expected GPs to refer cancer patients to the OP, when required. Moreover, they emphasised the importance of communication between GPs and OPs about patients' work-related problems to achieve common goals. Conclusions GPs can contribute to cancer patients' RTW process by supporting patients, giving advice and providing referral to other health professionals. Better cooperation between GPs and OPs may improve work guidance in cancer patients. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: When cancer patients with work-related issues get appropriate advice and support from GPs and referred in time to OPs, the RTW process and staying at work of cancer patients may be positively affected.

© Sarfo MC; Bertels L; Frings-Dresen MHW; de Jong F; Blankenstein AH; van Asselt KM; de Boer AGEM. Journal of Cancer Survivorship. 17(2):416-424, 2023 Apr.

Purpose Advances in breast cancer care have led to a high rate of survivorship. This meta-review (systematic review of reviews) assesses and synthesises the voluminous qualitative survivorship evidence-base, providing a comprehensive overview of the main themes regarding breast cancer survivorship experiences, and areas requiring further investigation. Methods Sixteen breast cancer reviews identified by a previous mixed cancer survivorship meta-review were included, with additional reviews published between 1998 and 2020, and primary papers published after the last comprehensive systematic review between 2018 and 2020, identified via database searches (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO). Quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Systematic Reviews and the CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative) checklist for primary studies. A meta-ethnographic approach was used to synthesise data. Results Of 1673 review titles retrieved, 9 additional reviews were eligible (25 reviews included in total). Additionally, 76 individual papers were eligible from 2273 unique papers. Reviews and studies commonly focused on specific survivorship groups (including those from ethnic minorities, younger/older, or with metastatic/advanced disease), and topics (including return to work). Eight themes emerged: (1) Ongoing impact and search for normalcy, (2) Uncertainty, (3) Identity: Loss and change, (4) Isolation and being misunderstood, (5) Posttraumatic growth, (6) Return to work, (7) Quality of care, and (8) Support needs and coping strategies. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors continue to face challenges and require interventions to address these. Implications for Cancer Survivors: Breast cancer survivors may need to prepare for ongoing psychosocial challenges in survivorship and proactively seek support to overcome these.

© King, R., Stafford, L., Butow, P., Giunta, S., Laidsaar‑Powell, R. (2023). Journal of cancer survivorship: research and practice. , 2023 Mar 01.

Février 2023

Purpose Several studies have identified the main barriers and facilitators that breast cancer survivors experience in the return to work (RTW). Methods The authors conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions with a group of female non-metastatic breast cancer survivors (n = 6), a group of health professionals from different medical specialties (n = 8), and a third group of company managers mainly composed of human resources managers (n = 7). The study was carried out between March and December 2021 in Zaragoza (Spain). Transcripts were analyzed using inductive content analysis to identify work-related barriers and facilitators and coded by the research team. Results Barriers identified included physical and cognitive symptoms, psychosocial problems, lack of knowledge and coordination (health professional, patients, and managers), legal vacuum, physical change, time constraints, work characteristics (lower skilled jobs), unsupportive supervisors and coworkers, family problems and self-demand. Facilitators included family and work support, physical activity and rehabilitation, personalized attention, interdisciplinary collaboration, legal advice for workers, knowledge about breast cancer in companies, positive aspects of work, elaboration of protocols for RTW in women with breast cancer. Conclusion RTW in working women with breast cancer requires a personalized and holistic view that includes the perspectives of patients, healthcare professionals and company managers.

© Marinas-Sanz R; Iguacel I; Maqueda J; Minguez L; Alquezar P; Andres R; Perez E; Sousa R; Moreno-Atahonero E; Sole D; Guemes A; Martinez-Jarreta B. Cancers. 15(3), 2023 Jan 31.

Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the work ability and its associated factors in patients with glioma (II, III) and breast cancer after 6 (T0) and 12 (T1) months from surgery. Methods A total of 99 patients were evaluated with self-reported questionnaires at T0 and T1. Correlation and Mann-Whitney tests were used to investigate the association between work ability and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. The Wilcoxon test was used to investigate the longitudinal change in work ability. Results Our sample showed a decrease in work ability level between T0 and T1. Work ability was associated with emotional distress, disability, resilience, and social support in glioma III patients at T0, and with fatigue, disability, and clinical treatments in patients with breast cancer at T0 and T1. Conclusion Work ability levels decreased in patients with glioma and breast cancer and were associated with different psychosocial factors after surgery. Their investigation is suggested to facilitate the return to work.

© Silvaggi F; Mariniello A; Leonardi M; Silvani A; Lamperti E; Di Cosimo S; Folli S; Trapani A; Schiavolin S. Journal of Health Psychology. 13591053231151286, 2023 Feb 18.

Purpose More women are returning to work following breast cancer treatment. Our team designed 'Beyond Cancer', a multimodal rehabilitation program to support breast cancer survivors to return to work. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the intervention from the breast cancer survivor, employer and occupational rehabilitation provider perspectives. Methods The feasibility design focused on implementation, acceptability and preliminary indications of efficacy. Primary outcome measures included work status, work capacity and perceived support at work. Responses were compared with an historical usual care group of mixed cancer survivors. Results The tailored intervention was delivered over 33 weeks (on average) by trained occupational rehabilitation consultants. Eighty-four women with breast cancer (mean age = 50.8 years, SD = 8.24) who were unable to work in their pre-diagnosis capacity for >3 months participated. Results provided preliminary indications of efficacy for primary work outcomes, including work capacity relative to the historical usual care group, and some secondary biopsychosocial variables (physical fatigue, return to work expectations). The intervention was acceptable, demonstrated strong participant engagement and high satisfaction. Conclusion Feasibility has been demonstrated for this multimodal intervention focused on returning to sustainable work for women with breast cancer. Future research is required with people diagnosed with other cancer types to demonstrate broader implementation.

© Sheppard DM; O'Connor M; Jefford M; Lamb G; Frost D; Ellis N; Halkett GKB. Current Oncology. 30(2): 2249-2270, Feb2023.

Purpose Financial toxicity significantly impacts many patients, especially cancer survivors. We evaluated the association of unemployment as a major contributor to financial toxicity with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) assessing multiple illness experience domains in a primary CNS tumor (PCNST) cohort. Methods Patient and disease characteristics and PROs measuring symptom burden, interference, psychologic distress, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from participants enrolled an IRB-approved observational study at the US National Institutes of Health's Neuro-Oncology Branch were collected between 9/2016-12/2019. Descriptive statistics, tests of association, and comparison of group means were used to describe and evaluate PROs. Results Of the 277 participants diagnosed with a PCNST, 57% were male and 43% were female. Participants reported their race as White, non-Hispanic (78%); White, Hispanic/Latino (9%); Asian (7%); Black (4%); Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (1%); other (2%) with 8% missing. The median age of the overall cohort was 45 years (range 18-74). Hispanic participants in the overall sample were 2.3 times more likely, and in the brain tumor group 3.2 times more likely, to report unemployment ( p =.043, OR=2.3, 95% CI [1.0, 5.4] and p =.008, OR=3.2, 95% CI [1.3, 7.9], respectively). The 77 (28%) individuals unemployed due to tumor reported more functional impairment with walking, washing, dressing, performing usual activities, and reduced HRQOL (p<.001). More unemployed participants in the total sample reported moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (25%) than those employed (8%) (X 2 (1)=13.9, p <.001, OR=3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.8]) and more moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms (30%) than those employed (15%) (X 2 (1)=7.8, p =.005, OR=2.4, 95% CI [1.3, 4.5]). Unemployed brain tumor participants reported on average 3 more symptoms as moderate-to-severe compared to those employed (t(83)=-4.0, 95% CI [Formula: see text] difference [-5, -2], p <.001, Hedge's g=.70). Conclusion Being unemployed due to a PCNST strongly correlated with high symptom burden, functional impairment, psychological distress and reduced HRQOL which may be impediments to returning to work that warrant intervention. Lack of employer-based health insurance and reduced earnings are financial sequelae of unemployment superimposed on the physical, social, and cognitive effects of living with a PCNST. Innovations to screen for and address financial toxicity and its contributing factors are needed.

© Leeper HE; Vera E; Christ A; Acquaye A; Briceno N; Choi A; Grajkowska E; Jammula V; Levine J; Lindsley M; Reyes J; Roche KN; Rogers JL; Timmer M; Boris L; Burton E; Lollo N; Panzer M; Penas-Prado M; Pillai V; Polskin L; Theeler BJ; Wu J; Gilbert MR; Armstrong TS, Neurology, 2023 Feb 08.

Janvier 2023

Purpose This qualitative study followed participants enrolled in a return to work (RTW) intervention, aiming to address individual physical, psychological and work-related challenges. Objective: To explore cancer survivors' experiences of receiving a tailored RTW intervention initiated parallel with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods Two semi-structured interviews of eight female cancer survivors in treatment for breast cancer (n = 7) or ovaria cancer (n = 1) were conducted prior or close to their RTW and 3-5 months later. Inspired by Margrit Schreier's inductive analysis coding and identification of themes guided the analysis. Results Participants expressed satisfaction with the RTW intervention, which helped them to cope during the RTW process. Three themes with corresponding subthemes dominated the participants' experience of the RTW intervention. 1) Social workers made participants feel individually coached, 2) Collaboration with social workers helped over time to manage RTW, and 3) Social workers supported participants to conduct and adjust the RTW plan. Conclusion This study shows how the interaction with social workers were based on mutual trust and sense of being cared for, which seems to have a positive impact on how participants managed their RTW. Future research needs to address the long-term challenges in cancer survivors' RTW.

©  Petersen KS; Hedeager Momsen AM; Vinther-Nielsen C.  Work.  2023 Jan 09.

Purpose As the cancer survival rate increases, discussions on the employment status of cancer survivors should be actively carried out worldwide. This study examined patients' working status changes after cancer diagnosis to provide the basis for cancer survivors' return to work. Methods We established a nationwide cohort to determine long-term work changes after cancer diagnosis. All patients aged 19 to 50 years who were newly diagnosed with cancer while working for the previous 3 years were considered as the case group in 2010. Using propensity score matching (PSM), the cases were matched by sex and age at a ratio of 1:3 with the control group. Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox hazard model analyses were performed to determine the occurrence of unemployment and return to work in the case and control groups on a yearly basis. Results According to the 6-year follow-up after cancer diagnosis, 26.5% of cancer patients and 23.2% of controls had lost their jobs by the end of the follow-up (P < .0001). Meanwhile, 50.5% of cancer patients and 57.4% of controls had returned to work after unemployment (P < .0001). Subsequently, based on the Cox hazard model, the unemployment risk of cancer patients was 1.42 times higher than that of the general population, while the proportion of those who returned to work was 1.15 times lower. Conclusion Employment is very closely related to the quality of life of cancer survivors. These results highlight the need for a system that can support cancer survivors' work maintenance and return to work after unemployment during the treatment period and the fact that awareness of this must be improved.

©  Choi YJ; Lee WY. Supportive Care in Cancer. 31(2):135, 2023 Jan 26.

Décembre 2022

Purpose Studies found that women with breast cancer struggle with significant physical and mental challenges that affect their participation in daily living, social and work activities. Although women express their need for rehabilitation, in Israel there has been scant research on the nature of these needs. Objective: To examine the implications of breast cancer for Israeli women in terms of their quality of life, body function, activities and participation in all facets of life, including work. Methods The sample was composed of women diagnosed with breast cancer. The data were collected through: (a) an online electronic survey assessing cancer-related quality of life (QoL), function and disability, fatigue and sensory-motor functions, (n = 201) followed by (b) face-to-face interviews and assessments (n= 20), and a healthy control group (n = 61). Results Women with breast cancer reported significantly lower QoL compared to the healthy control group. They reported higher levels of disability in areas such as, cognition, mobility, upper extremity, as well as overall difficulties in self-care, doing routine household activities and return to work. Roughly one-third of the women did not return to work. Interestingly, our sample did not perceive a decline in terms of their social support or networks, the women stated that family and social support were major enabling factors. Conclusion The results show that breast cancer has short and long-term functional effects on most facets of these women’s life. The women’s social support system served as an enabling factor. Many women expressed their frustration at the lack of rehabilitation services for their condition and needs in Israel.

© Langer D; Tendler S; Bar-Haim Erez A. Work. Dec2022, p1-13.

Novembre 2022

Purpose Ability to return to work (RTW) is an important aspect of breast cancer that is limited for many survivors. With 90% survivorship in the USA, it is imperative that focus shifts toward the improvement of physical arm function to improve survivors' ability to RTW. This narrative review discusses the role of physical arm function and demographic disparities in breast cancer survivor RTW. Methods Literature on physical function, arm function, and demographic disparities following breast cancer treatment and their implications for RTW is discussed. Results The ability to RTW is a key component of recovery for breast cancer survivors, but challenges and inequalities persist. Treatment effects can induce and prolong functional disability, affecting survivors' ability to RTW. These effects may be compounded for survivors whose occupation requires physical arm function. The RTW landscape, including the occupations survivors have, the physical function required for job tasks, and availability of workplace accommodations, is also unclear. Additional demographic disparities (e.g., income, live in rural area) exist, but the extent to which these factors influence RTW is not well understood. More work is needed to understand the compounded impact of treatment effects, demographic disparities, and occupational factors on RTW. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation that includes occupational counseling and exercise is a promising approach, but widespread adoption in the US healthcare model presents an ongoing challenge. Areas for further research are highlighted. Conclusion There is an incomplete understanding of the effects of treatment on physical arm function and the role of demographic disparities on breast cancer survivor RTW.

© Vidt ME; Heitzenrater J; Dodge D; Potochny J; Widders K; Paulishak M; Ravnic D; Henry CR; Green M; Kass R; Schmitz KH, Supportive Care in Cancer.  2022 Nov 10.

Purpose The number of cancer survivors in a working age is rising. An awareness of factors associated with adverse work outcomes, and of supportive interventions, is needed. Methods A narrative review of research obtained via several databases, including Medline and PsycINFO, was conducted. Results AREAS OF AGREEMENT: A range of factors is associated with adverse work outcomes such as prolonged sick leave, delayed return to work, disability pension and unemployment in cancer survivors. They include the cancer type and treatment, fatigue, cognitive functioning, work factors and elements of health care systems. Effective supportive interventions encompass physical and multicomponent interventions.  AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: The role of behaviour determinants and legislative and insurance systems is unclear. It is furthermore uncertain what the optimal timing of delivering supportive interventions is. Conclusions Further focus on vulnerable groups, including specific cancer types and those with lower income, lower educational level and in precarious employment, is needed. Recent developments are tailored and timely interventions.

© de Boer AGEM; de Wind A; Coenen P; van Ommen F; Greidanus MA; Zegers AD; Duijts SFA; Tamminga SJ, British Medical Bulletin.  2022 Nov 12.

Purpose Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women, and it is a major cause of cancer death around the world. With the development of diagnostic methods and improvements in treatment methods, the incidence rate of breast cancer and the number of breast cancer survivors continue to simultaneously increase. Methods We used national registry database to analyze the features that affect employment and return to work among breast cancer survivors. A total of 23,220 employees, who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer were recruited based on the Labor Insurance Database (LID), the Taiwan Cancer Registry (TCR), and National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) during the period 2004-2015. The correlations between return to work (RTW) and independent confounding factors were examined using Cox proportional hazards model. Survival probability was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meir method. Results After adjusting for confounding variables, cancer stage, chemotherapy and higher income were significantly negatively correlated with RTW. Among breast cancer survivors, RTW was found to be related to a lower risk of all-cause mortality in both the unadjusted and fully adjusted model. Patients who had RTW exhibited better survival in all stages. Conclusion Work-, disease- and treatment-related factors influenced RTW among employees with breast cancer. RTW was associated with better breast cancer survival. Our study demonstrates the impact of RTW and the associated factors on breast cancer survivorship.

© Yang ZY; Chen WL; Wu WT; Lai CH; Ho CL; Wang CC, International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health. 19(21), 2022 Nov 03.

Purpose Cancer survivors face higher rates of unemployment compared with individuals without a history of cancer. Compared to other cancer types, head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors face unique disease and treatment-specific issues that may limit return to work (RTW). This review aimed to determine employment outcomes of HNC survivors post-treatment and identify factors associated with RTW. Methods A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO in December 2021. Inclusion criteria included adults (≥ 18 years); completed treatment for HNC; data available on RTW post-treatment. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were considered. Studies were critically appraised and data synthesised narratively. Results Twenty-nine publications were included: 22 quantitative, four qualitative and three mixed methods. The proportion of HNC survivors who RTW ranged from 32 to 90%, with participants taking 3.6-11 months to RTW. Working in a professional role and having a supportive work environment were positively associated with RTW. Conclusions The proportion of HNC survivors who RTW varies significantly which may be due to the heterogeneity between the studies including difference in clinical characteristics of the participants and/or sample size. Future studies that are longitudinal, adequately powered and measure a range of clinical and demographic variables are needed to better understand the RTW experience and assist development of effective RTW strategies. This review suggests potential areas for intervention, including enhanced symptom management and engaging with employers to foster supportive work environments to support RTW of HNC survivors.

© Zecena Morales C; Lisy K; McDowell L; Piper A; Jefford M, Journal of cancer survivorship: research and practice, 2022 Nov 17.

Purpose We developed a comprehensive RTW intervention covering physical, psycho-social and practical issues for patients newly diagnosed and evaluated its efficacy in terms of RTW. Methods A multi-center randomized controlled trial was done to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention conducted at two university-based cancer centers in Korea. The intervention program comprised educational material at diagnosis, a face-to-face educational session at completion of active treatment, and three individualized telephone counseling sessions. The control group received other education at enrollment. Results At one-month post-intervention (T2), the intervention group was more likely to be working compared to the control group after controlling working status at diagnosis (65.4% vs. 55.9%, p=0.04). Among patients who did not work at baseline, the intervention group was 1.99-times more likely to be working at T2. The mean of knowledge score was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group (7.4 vs. 6.8, p=0.029). At the one-year follow-up, the intervention group was 65% (95% CI=0.78, 3.48) more likely to have higher odds for having work. Conclusion The intervention improved work-related knowledge and was effective in facilitating cancer patients' RTW.

© Kang D; Bae KR; Ahn Y; Kim N; Nam SJ; Lee JE; Lee SK; Shim YM; Sinn DH; Oh SY; Chun M; Heo J; Cho J, Cancer research and treatment, 2022 Nov 08.

Purpose Being able to work improves the quality of life of patients with cancer. Much is known about the return to work process of cancer survivors. Yet, studies focusing on the experiences of patients with advanced cancer who want to return to work or stay employed are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to explore the perceptions of patients with advanced cancer regarding work resumption and work retention and the barriers and facilitators they may experience. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Patients were included if they: (1) were diagnosed with advanced cancer, (2) worked in paid employment at time of diagnosis, and (3) were currently back in paid employment or had the intention to return to paid employment. Participants were recruited through clinicians and patient organizations. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using ATLAS.ti. Results Fifteen patients (87% female, mean age 52 (SD 4; range 41–64)) were individually interviewed. Four main themes emerged from the data: (1) holding on to normalcy, (2) high understanding and divergent expectations, (3) social discomfort calls for patient-initiated alignment, and (4) laws and regulations require patient empowerment. Conclusion Paid employment can contribute to the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer. The findings of this study might correct erroneous preconceptions about the work ability and work intention of patients with advanced cancer. Tools already developed for employers to support reintegration of patients with cancer should be further explored and translated to patients with advanced cancer.

© Beerda DCE.; Zegers AD; van Andel ES; Becker-Commissaris A; van der Vorst MJDL; Tange D; Duijts SFA; Brom L. Supportive Care in Cancer. Nov2022, p1-9.

Octobre 2022

Purpose International research emphasizes the importance of providing early, hospital-based support in return to work (RTW) for cancer patients. Even though oncology health professionals are aware of the scientific evidence, it remains unclear whether they implement this knowledge in current practice. This paper presents the knowledge and viewpoints of health care professionals (HCPs) on their potential role in their patients' RTW process. Methods Semi-structured interviews with oncology HCPs were used to describe current practice. Results of these interviews served as input for focus group discussions with managers in oncology hospitals, which led to an agreement on of best practice. Results This research had the participation of 75% of Belgian institutions involved in oncology health care services. Five themes were identified that influence care providers and staff to implement scientific evidence on RTW in cancer patients: (1) Opinions on the role that care institutions can take in RTW support; (2) Current content of RTW support during oncology care; (3) Scientific bases; (4) Barriers and success factors; and (5) Legislation and regulations. The key elements of the best practice included a generic approach adapted to the needs of the cancer patient supported by a RTW coordinator. Conclusions Health care providers include RTW support in their current care, but in very varied ways. They follow a process that starts with setting the indication (meaning the identification of patients for whom the provision of work-related care would be useful) and ends with a clear objective agreed upon by HCPs and the patient. We recommend that specific points of interest be included in regulation at both the patient and hospital levels.

© Desiron H; Simons B; Spooren A; Camut S; Van de Velde D; Otte T; BrunoisT; Van Kelst K; Godderis L. Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences. 3:819369, 2022.

Purpose Every year, more and more people in the workforce are involved in oncological rehabilitation. Although a lot of research has shed light on side effects of cancer treatment on the body, and even on its relationship with work, qualitative analyses in social sciences is still lacking. Results This article presents elements of reflection toward a better understanding of professional path, the consequences of the disease at the time of return to work and in the months after. It describes the side effects associated with cancer treatment, which have a lasting impact on work and create a gap between the person concerned and his/her professional environment. Conclusion This article focuses on temporalities during the oncological rehabilitation process, broadens the reflection thanks to the notion of bifurcation and shows the stumbling blocks between the temporalities of work, the professional network and the person undergoing oncological rehabilitation.

© Nizard C. Sante Publique. 34(2):181-189, 2022.

Purpose Managers are considered to be main stakeholders in the return to work (RTW) of cancer survivors. However, the perspectives of cancer survivors and managers differ on what managerial actions should be taken during the RTW of cancer survivors. This difference might put effective collaboration and successful RTW at risk. Therefore, this study aims to reach consensus among managers and cancer survivors on the managerial actions to be taken during the four different RTW phases of cancer survivors (i.e., Disclosure, Treatment, RTW plan, Actual RTW). Methods The Technique for Research of Information by Animation of a Group of Experts (TRIAGE) was implemented with managers and cancer survivors (hereafter referred to as "experts"). An initial list of 24 actions was derived from a previous study. Firstly, for each action, fifteen experts were asked to indicate individually how important this action is per RTW phase (Likert scale from 1 - "Not important at all" to 6 - "Very important"). Consensus was reached when >= 80% (i.e., >= twelve experts) of the experts rated that action >=5. Secondly, for each phase of the RTW process, the 15 actions with the highest percentage were discussed with eight experts during the collective consultation, except for the actions that already reached consensus. After discussion, the experts voted whether each action was important ("yes" / "no") and consensus required >= 87.5% (i.e., >= seven experts) of the experts to consider an action as important. Results Twenty-five managerial actions were finally retained for at least one of the RTW phases, e.g., Disclosure: "respect privacy" and "radiate a positive attitude", Treatment: "show appreciation" and "allow sufficient sick leave", RTW Plan: "tailor" and "communicate", and Actual RTW: "support practically" and "balance interest". Conclusion Cancer survivors and managers reached consensus on the importance of 25 managerial actions, distributed into each phase of the RTW process. These actions should be considered an interplay of managerial actions by different stakeholders on the part of the employer (e.g., direct supervisor, HR-manager), and should be a responsibility that is shared by these stakeholders. The collective implementation of these actions within the company will help cancer survivors feel fully supported.

© Porro B; Tamminga SJ; de Boer AGEM; Petit A; Roquelaure Y; Greidanus MA. BMC Public Health. 22(1):1905, 2022 Oct 12.

Purpose Prompt services and work-focused support systems are needed to aid cancer survivors returning to work or finding work. This knowledge translation and implementation project focused on the knowledge users' experience and need for refinement of three work-focused tools to support return to work and maintain work following cancer through their participation in a hands-on workshop. The tools assessed for their utility are a Job Analysis Tool (JAT), a Return to Work (RTW) tool, and a bilingual Canadian website on Cancer and Work. Methods Four workshops took place in three Canadian cities. Participants included cancer survivors, healthcare professionals, and employer representatives. Following an overview of the website and tools, workshop participants (N = 28) completed qualitative and quantitative satisfaction and usability questionnaires using the System Usability Scale and open-ended questions. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analyses from the think-aloud data and from the four open-ended questions collected during the users' use of the tools and website. Results Overall, most study participants reported high satisfaction with the JAT and RTW tools, the Cancer and work website and the workshop. Good usability scores were reported for the RTW planner (73.65 +/- 12.61) and the website (74.83 +/- 12.36), and only acceptable usability scores for the JAT (68.53 +/- 11.90). Conclusion Overall, the study documented the value of the tools and the website to support the RTW process as assessed by several key knowledge user groups. The JAT is considered a helpful procedure to identify job demands in order to guide job accommodations. Given participants' responses that the tool is useful, the next steps are to implement the recommendations for improvement and knowledge dissemination to increase its uptake and the use of job analysis overall.

© Maheu C; Kocum L; Parkinson M; Robinson L; Bernstein LJ; Zanchetta MS; Singh M; Hernandez C; Yashmin F; Esplen MJ. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 32(3):452-463, 2022 Sep.

Purpose Cancerous diseases are known to disrupt a person's ability and inflict physical, psychological, financial, and social complications on the person, thereby challenging an individual's returning to work. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of cancer patients to work after returning to work. Methods This descriptive-correlational study examined a total of 227 surviving cancer patients, having picked the participants through convenience sampling. Data were collected by the return to work and work ability index (WAI) questionnaires and analyzed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics using SPSS software. Results A total of 166 (73.2%) of the participants had returned to work after completing the basic treatment. The mean (standard deviation) of the work ability score was 29.52 (9.43), ranging from 9 to 43 while the average daily work hours dropped from 12.30 to 5.50. The chi-square test showed a significant relationship between the work ability score and the type of return to work. Moreover, the rank logistic regression analysis revealed that work ability was the most important predictor of return to work. Conclusion Survivors of cancer face reduced working hours and limited ability to work after returning to work, and it is possible to facilitate the return to work in these patients by identifying their job needs in relation to their abilities and barriers of returning to work through the appropriate interventions.

© Ghasempour M; Porabdolah M; Rahmani A; Dehghannezhad J; Mousavi S; Sattarpour S, Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention, 2022 Oct 01; Vol. 23 (10), pp. 3339-3346.

Purpose Incidence and survivorship are increasing worldwide. With more people living through and beyond cancer, there is a subsequent increase in their supportive care needs. This systematic review of qualitative studies aimed to describe the impacts of unmet supportive care needs on cancer survivors in Australia. Methods Databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus were searched, and after screening and applying eligibility criteria, 27 qualitative studies were included. Findings were synthesised according to the Supportive Care Framework for Cancer Care, including informational, physical, practical, emotional, psychological, social and spiritual need domains. Results The systematic review identified impacts of unmet informational, physical, practical, emotional and psychological needs. Frequently identified impacts of unmet informational needs were feelings of abandonment and isolation, distress, confusion and regret. Common impacts of unmet physical and practical needs were financial burden and return‐to‐work difficulties. Over half of all unmet supportive care needs caused emotional and psychological impacts. Conclusion Findings identify the detrimental emotional and psychological impacts resulting from a range of unmet supportive care needs. The review highlights the interconnections between supportive care need domains thereby enhancing the understanding of the impacts of unmet SCNs. Findings may inform policy and practice change to improve supportive cancer care.

© Bellas O; Kemp E; Edney L; Oster C; Roseleur J. European Journal of Cancer Care. Oct2022.

Purpose Work ability, which is based on the self-report of individuals while they work, is the strongest predictor of cancer survivors' (CS) return to work. This study aimed to investigate the working conditions and quality of life (QoL) of individuals with cancer who survived after receiving cancer treatment. Methods The sample of this cross-sectional and correlational survey type study consisted of 262 CSs. Data were collected using the Socio-Demographic and Health Information Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and the Work Ability Index (WAI). Results Of the 262 CSs who participated in this study, 21.4% were employed. The mean score obtained from the WAI by the employed CSs was 33.20. The mean scores the employed CSs obtained from the physical functioning and role physical subscales of the SF-36 HRQoL were higher than those of the unemployed CSs (p<0.05). There was a correlation between the mean score of the employed CSs obtained from the overall WAI and the mean scores they obtained from all the sub-dimensions of the SF-36 QoL scale (p=0.01). The strongest correlation was found between the WAI and the Social Functioning subscale of the HRQoL (SF-36). Conclusion The QoL of the employed CSs was better than that of the unemployed CSs and there was a correlation between their work ability and QoL.

© Yılmaz M; Uyanık G; Alaşalvar FE; Dişsiz G; Alacacıoğlu AC. Journal of Medical Sciences, 2022; 7(4): 520-527.

Septembre 2022

Purpose The aim of this review was to determine the prevalence of return to work (RTW) amongst head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors and to determine its impact on quality of life (QoL). Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Embase and CINAHL in March 2021. Articles were included if they reported the number of patients with HNC receiving definitive treatment who were working at the time of diagnosis and returned to work. Results There were 21 articles deemed eligible for inclusion. Meta-analysis suggested that 67% of patients with HNC who were employed at diagnosis RTW (95% CI 62%-73%, I 2  = 97.53%). Patients who RTW were demonstrated to have lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Conclusions: Return to work is an important clinical outcome which must be considered in the survivorship care of patients with HNC.

© Yu J; Smith J; Marwah R; Edkins O, Head & neck, 2022 Sep 19

Purpose Breast cancer survivorship has improved in recent decades, but few studies have assessed the patterns of employment status following diagnosis and the impact of job loss on long-term well-being in ethnically diverse breast cancer survivors. We hypothesized that post-treatment employment status is an important determinant of survivor well-being and varies by race and age. Methods In the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1646 employed women with primary breast cancer were longitudinally evaluated for post-diagnosis job loss and overall well-being. Work status was classified as "sustained work," "returned to work," "job loss," or "persistent non-employment." Well-being was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-G) instrument. Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the association between work status and well-being (physical, functional, social, and emotional). Results At 25 months post-diagnosis, 882 (53.6%) reported "sustained work," 330 (20.1%) "returned to work," 162 (9.8%) "job loss," and 272 (16.5%) "persistent non-employment." Nearly half of the study sample (46.4%) experienced interruptions in work during 2 years post-diagnosis. Relative to baseline (5-month FACT-G), women who sustained work or returned to work had higher increases in all well-being domains than women with job loss and persistent non-employment. Job loss was more common among Black than White women (adjusted odds ratio = 3.44; 95% confidence interval 2.37-4.99) and was associated with service/laborer job types, lower education and income, later stage at diagnosis, longer treatment duration, and non-private health insurance. However, independent of clinical factors, job loss was associated with lower well-being in multiple domains. Conclusions Work status is commonly disrupted in breast cancer survivors, but sustained work is associated with well-being. Interventions to support women's continued employment after diagnosis are an important dimension of breast cancer survivorship. Implications for Cancer Survivors: Our findings indicate that work continuation and returning to work may be a useful measure for a range of wellbeing concerns, particularly among Black breast cancer survivors who experience greater job loss.

© Emerson MA; Reeve BB; Gilkey MB; Elmore SNC; Hayes S; Bradley CJ; Troester MA, Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice, 2022 Sep 14

Purpose Our objective was to obtain perspectives from ovarian cancer patients on job demands, cancer demands, and workplace or cancer resources and strategies to manage the cancer-work interface using the cancer-work management conceptual framework. Methods We recruited ovarian cancer patients receiving systemic therapy who screened positive for financial distress using Comprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity <26. Interviews were conducted with participants about their costs of care, including employment concerns. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by three researchers using an inductive thematic analysis. Results Of 22 participants, the average age was 57 years old, 36% were Black, 68% had income <$40,000, 41% had public insurance, and 68% were being treated for recurrent disease. Job demands included decreased productivity, inability to return to work, and worry about losing a job or employer-based health insurance coverage. Cancer demands included physical and cognitive limitations due to cancer treatment and reliance on caregivers, especially for transportation. Workplace resources/strategies including having a supportive employer, modifying job responsibilities, and utilizing family medical leave. Cancer care resources/strategies included planning appointments ahead of time and utilizing resources, such as disability. Conclusion Cancer care teams should consider screening patients for employment concerns; streamline care to minimize the side effects, time, and transportation demands of treatment on patients and caregivers; maximize utilization of available resources; and proactively communicate with employers to accommodate patients and caregivers who want or need to work. • Cancer teams should screen for employment concerns and develop resources for patients and caregivers who need/want to work. • Job demands include decreased productivity, inability to work, potential for job and employer-based health insurance loss. • Cancer demands include work limitations due to symptoms, reliance on working caregivers for transportation. • Workplace resources/strategies include having a supportive employer, modifying job responsibilities, family medical leave. • Cancer care resources/strategies include streamlining care to minimize work impact and providing information on disability.

© Liang MI, Simons JL, Herbey II, Wall JA, Rucker LR, Ivankova NV, Huh WK, Pisu M. Gynecologic Oncology. Sep2022, Vol. 166 Issue 3, p481-486.

Purpose The objectives of this sare to explore the experiences and perspectives of general and occupational health care professionals regarding work resumption and work retention of patients with advanced cancer, and to identify barriers and facilitators these professionals may encounter. Methods A qualitative design was applied, and individual semistructured interviews were conducted. General and occupational health care professionals were eligible to participate if they were involved in the work participation guidance of patients with advanced cancer, and were recruited through the network of the research team. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically via ATLAS.ti 9. Results Interviewees (N = 17) had various occupational backgrounds, for example, occupational physician, reintegration consultant, and general practitioner. Four main themes emerged from the data: (1) Assumptions and hesitations, (2) Patient initiates stakeholder communication, (3) Role dispersion: who is in charge of what? and (4) Experience with legislation creates opportunities. Conclusion Whereas most interviewees had positive experiences with, and/or optimistic expectations of, the work resumption and work retention of patients with advanced cancer, several barriers to the work participation guidance of these patients were identified. Suggestions for improvement include creating widespread awareness of the possibility of work participation of patients with advanced cancer and developing reintegration guidelines for advanced cancer.

© Zegers AD, Andel ES, Beerda DCE, Dona DJS, Aukema EJ, Brom L, Duijts SFA. European Journal of Cancer Care. Sep2022

Purpose To systematically review the evidence regarding rehabilitation interventions targeting optimal physical or cognitive function in adults with a history of cancer and describe the breadth of evidence as well as strengths and limitations across a range of functional domains. Methods PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Plus, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase. The time scope was January 2008 to April 2019. Prospective, controlled trials including single- and multiarm cohorts investigating rehabilitative interventions for cancer survivors at any point in the continuum of care were included, if studies included a primary functional outcome measure. Secondary data analyses and pilot/feasibility studies were excluded. Full-text review identified 362 studies for inclusion. Extraction was performed by coauthor teams and quality and bias assessed using the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Classification of Evidence Scheme (class I-IV). Studies for which the functional primary endpoint achieved significance were categorized into 9 functional areas foundational to cancer rehabilitation: (1) quality of life (109 studies), (2) activities of daily living (61 studies), (3) fatigue (59 studies), (4) functional mobility (55 studies), (5) exercise behavior (37 studies), (6) cognition (20 studies), (7) communication (10 studies), (8) sexual function (6 studies), and (9) return to work (5 studies). Results Most studies were categorized as class III in quality/bias. Averaging results found within each of the functional domains, 71% of studies reported statistically significant results after cancer rehabilitation intervention(s) for at least 1 functional outcome. Conclusion These findings provide evidence supporting the efficacy of rehabilitative interventions for individuals with a cancer history. The findings should be balanced with the understanding that many studies had moderate risk of bias and/or limitations in study quality by AAN criteria. These results may provide a foundation for future work to establish clinical practice guidelines for rehabilitative interventions across cancer disease types.

© Sleight A; Gerber LH; Marshall TF; Livinski A; Alfano CM; Harrington S; Flores AM; Virani A; Hu X; Mitchell SA; Varedi M; Eden M; Hayek S; Reigle B; Kerkman A; Neves R; Jablonoski K; Hacker ED; Sun V; Newman R. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Sep2022; 103(9): 1807-1826.

Purpose Increased breast cancer survivorship has prompted a focus on optimising quality of life for this cohort, including re-integration into employment. Despite this, there remains a lack of work-focused interventions to support work outcomes for women living with and beyond breast cancer.The aim of this study was to prioritise the content and delivery of a work-focused intervention for women living with and beyond breast cancer. Methods Twelve stakeholders including women living with and beyond breast cancer, healthcare professionals, cancer support centre staff, and policy informers were invited to participate in an online discussion using the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) to determine priorities for a work-focused intervention. The NGT seeks consensus through four steps; (i) idea generation, (ii) discussion among the group, (iii) refining ideas, and (iv) ranking preference for ideas through anonymised voting.Intervention content prioritised included managing cancer-related symptoms and work-specific factors. Consensus was made for a blended delivery format (mix of group and individual sessions), and blended delivery (face-to-face and online). Results Findings indicated a preference for a six-week intervention, with 90–120 minute sessions. Community-based settings were preferred over hospital-based services for the setting of a work-focused intervention. Zoom Video Communications Inc. was the preferred setting to deliver an online intervention. Conclusion Stakeholder priorities informed the content and delivery of a work-focused intervention for women with breast cancer. A pilot of the proposed intervention will be conducted to test for feasibility and acceptability.

© Algeo N; Bennett K; Connolly D. Work. Sep2022, p1-9.

Août 2022

Purpose Continuing employment or returning to work (RTW) as a cancer survivor can be meaningful and financially necessary, yet challenging. However, there is a lack of qualitative research on RTW experiences and financial wellbeing of people with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC-A). This study aimed to fill this gap. Methods Adults treated for CRC-A were recruited 0.5-2 years post-surgery (or post-diagnosis of CRC-A for palliative chemotherapy participants).Semi-structured telephone interviews, exploring RTW and finances, were subjected to framework analysis. Demographic, clinical, and quality of life data (FACT-C, Distress Thermometer, COST measure) were collected to characterise the sample and inform the framework analysis. Results Analysis of 38 interviews revealed five overarching themes: work as a struggle, work as my identity, work as my saviour, work as a financial necessity, and employer and colleague response. Many survivors with CRC-A desired to, and had the capacity to, continue work or RTW, yet faced unique challenges from compounded stigma of both cancer and toileting issues. Inability to RTW negatively impacted financial and psychosocial wellbeing. Workplace support was an important facilitator of RTW. Conclusion For survivors with CRC-A, continuing or RTW is fraught with challenges, including physical functioning challenges, financial anxiety, and unsupportive workplace environments. Survivors require psychosocial, financial, and employer support to manage these difficulties. This paper recommends a multiprong approach, including education programmes (facilitated through workers' union groups, human resource institutions, and/or large consumer CRC groups) and policies, to support workers and for employers to understand the unique challenges of employees with CRC-A.

© Lim CYS; Laidsaar-Powell RC; Young JM; Steffens D; Koczwara B; Zhang Y; advanced-CRC survivorship authorship group; Butow P. Supportive Care in Cancer.  2022 Aug 16.

Purpose Fatigue after breast cancer treatment affects one in four women. Feeling tired affects womens daily activities, coping with the disease and quality of life. After active treatment, women want to return to their working lives, where fatigue is a barrier. Despite the fact of fatigue being such a common consequence of the treatment, it seems to be often overlooked. Methods This article is a substudy of the research focused on the complex experience of women with breast cancer. In this substudy, we focus on breast cancer patients perceptions of fatigue and its impact on daily life. A qualitative methodology was used to collect the data. The interviews were structured into two consecutive parts. The first, narrative part was followed by a semi-structured interview. The research population was recruited to meet the conditions of maximum variation sample (different regions of the country, age categories, education, stage of the disease, and treatment modality). Fifty-three interviews were collected and transcribed verbatim. The data from which the categories were created were analysed using NVivo10 software and were open coded. The codes were then grouped into themes for thematic analysis. Results Most women experienced fatigue as a consequence of the disease. Fatigue often forced them to change their lifestyle. The women perceived great limitations when returning to work. They did not feel ready to return to work and often postponed it or considered changing their working hours or a type of job. Conclusion Fatigue seems to be an underestimated consequence of the treatment in breast cancer patients. It often leads to a forced change in womens lifestyle, which has a negative impact on their mental health. Methods to monitor fatigue and early interventions are needed to improve womens quality of life after the treatment.

©   Cernikova KA; Kluzova Kracmarova L; Pesoutova M; Tavel P. Klinicka Onkologie. 35(4):290-296, 2022 Summer.

Purpose While many studies investigated changes in working status in cancer survivors, most studies have been performed in survivors of breast cancer and few studies evaluated factors associated with changes in the working status of cancer survivors comprehensively. We aimed to evaluate the changes in the working status of cancer survivors after diagnosis and socio-demographic, clinical, work-related and psychological factors associated with it. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult patients with cancer who were working at the time of diagnosis. A trained interviewer inquired about participants' current working status, including leave of absence, discontinuing, continuing, and changing work. Sociodemographic, clinical, work-related and psychological factors were measured. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with changes in the working status. Results Among the 730 patients, 29%, 18% and 6% were currently on a discontinued working, leave of absence and had changed jobs, respectively. Patients who discontinued working after cancer diagnosis were more likely to be female, have ≥ $3,000 of monthly family income, not be the principal wage earners for their families and be blue-collar workers. In clinical characteristics, advanced-stage cancer and experienced cancer recurrence was associated with leave of absence and discontinued working. In work-related and psychological factors, stress due to insufficient job control (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.26), interpersonal conflict (RRR = 1.86), job insecurity (RRR = 2.63), organizational system (RRR = 3.49), and lack of reward (RRR = 11.76), and less meaning to work were more likely to discontinue working after a cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Occupational health care professionals and other stakeholders need to openly communicate with patients with cancer about potential barriers during the return-to-work trajectory.

© Kang D; Bae KR; Kim HY; Ahn Y; Kim N; Shim Y; Sohn TS; Lee WY; Baek JH; Kweon SS; Cho J. BMC Cancer. Vol. 22 Issue 1, p1-9.

Purpose Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a side effect of cancer treatment, may negatively impact the ability to perform work. Factors such as delayed diagnosis, late-stage disease, and a high percentage of service occupations may challenge work choices for Latinas after BCRL diagnosis. Methods Our multiple case study explored work experiences and quality of life (QOL) for Hispanic/Latina survivors. Participants completed demographic and short form-36 (SF-36) surveys. Semi-structured interviews focused on how work environment, self-management, and QOL were influenced by BCRL. Thematic analysis of cases used In Vivo and descriptive coding and constant cross-case comparative methods. Results Analysis illustrated how Hispanic/Latina survivors perceive the influence of BCRL on work experience as requiring adaptation and personal resilience. Participants identified BCRL knowledge gap challenges and described coping with physical, psychosocial, and work activity changes. They described creative work adaptations and discussed BCRL's impact on both positive and negative interpersonal perceptions. Strong support from family, friends, and colleagues contributed to improved QOL and continued work activities. Conclusion Future research should incorporate coping strategies and creative management of BCRL to optimize work activities across the lifespan. These strategies can provide guidance for the creation of survivorship care plans, education of healthcare professionals (HCPs), and lifelong occupational support.

© Anderson EA; Anbari AB; Sun Y; Armer JM, Hispanic health care international : the official journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses, 2022 Aug 10, pp. 15404153221116755

Juillet 2022

Purpose Patients with a rare cancer often face delays in their diagnostic and treatment trajectory, which may affect their work. In this study, we explored experiences and needs of: 1) patients with a rare cancer regarding return to work (RTW) and work retention, and 2) (health care) professionals (HCPs) regarding work-related support of patients with a rare cancer, throughout their disease trajectory. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with working-age patients with a rare cancer n= 16), and HCPs (n= 9) were conducted. During the interviews, a predefined topic list was used. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by means of thematic analysis. Results In total, three themes emerged from the interviews: 1) Awareness in patients and HCPs as a first step towards work, 2) Being/becoming an expert is a tough job, and 3) Enhancing employability through early personalized guidance. Conclusions Patients with a rare cancer are confronted with uncertainties regarding work, due to an overall lack of knowledge and experience with these types of cancer. Raising awareness among patients, HCPs and employers about rare cancer and its implications, and providing timely individualized, supportive occupational care are required to improve rare cancer patients’ ability to work. Implications for rehabilitation: Recognizing and paying attention to the work-related consequences of a rare cancer diagnosis and its treatment is essential to facilitate rare cancer patients’ occupational rehabilitation process. Multidisciplinary collaboration and involvement of HCPs specialized in rare cancer are required to provide suitable work-related support. A personalized approach is necessary to adequately address rare cancer patients’ RTW and work retention needs. Recognizing and paying attention to the work-related consequences of a rare cancer diagnosis and its treatment is essential to facilitate rare cancer patients’ occupational rehabilitation process. Multidisciplinary collaboration and involvement of HCPs specialized in rare cancer are required to provide suitable work-related support.A personalized approach is necessary to adequately address rare cancer patients’ RTW and work retention needs.

© Olischläger, DLT; den Boer LXY; de Heus E; Brom L; Dona DJS; Klümpen HJ; Stapelfeldt CM; Duijts SFA. Disability & Rehabilitation. Jul 2022, p1-12.

Purpose Many patients with cancer experience challenges when they return to work (RTW) following cancer diagnosis and treatment. Psycho-educational support is important to facilitate the RTW process. Methods This scoping review examined published reports on psycho-educational support for patients with cancer who RTW. We followed the preferred reported items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement and the framework of Arksey and O’Malley. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database, PubMed, CINAHL (EBSCO), and ICHUSHI and performed manual searches. Results We retrieved 1,586 articles and retained 48 for analysis (published January 2000 to December 2020). Physicians, occupational physicians, nurses, social workers, and psychologists provide considerable support in hospitals. Delivery modes included individual, face-to-face, and workbook. Psychological support included emotional, stress coping, counseling, and knowledge. Educational support included information or advice provision, communication skills, problem discussion, and work planning. Employment status was typically the primary outcome. We included 50 measurement scales across quality of life, cognitive functioning and illness, self-efficacy, psychological distress, and fatigue. Conclusion This review elucidated psycho-educational support for patients with cancer who RTW, and measurement tools for related effects. Based on the characteristics of the psycho-educational support revealed in this study, future studies should examine the development, intervention, and implementation of support programs for patients’ RTW.

© Kobayashi M; Sezai I; Ishikawa T; Masujima M. Work. Jul 2022, p1-10.

Purpose Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients who are unable to return to work after completing treatment might face financial loss and reduced self-esteem. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing a return to work in HNC cancer patients in the first 6 months after treatment. Methods This cross-sectional study examined HNC patients who completed treatment from the outpatient radiation department of a single cancer center in northern Taiwan. Patients were assessed according to psychological distress, patient-perceived health status, barriers to returning to work, and facilitators of returning to work. Results Of the 106 HNC patients surveyed, 54.7% successfully returned to work. Barriers to returning to work included poor self-perception of health, greater psychological distress, and age ≥50 years. Conclusion Patients who had higher psychological distress, returned to work after start of the pandemic, or received reconstruction surgery were less likely to experience a positive environment facilitating a return to work.

© Chiu SE; Cho KA; Huang BS; Lin CY; Chung CF; Chang YL; Chen SC, Clinical nursing research, 2022 Jul 14, pp. 10547738221106292

Purpose Return to work (RTW) after breast cancer (BC) can be a major challenge for patients. Multidisciplinary interventions seem to be effective but the role of digital solutions is under-developed and therefore not evaluated. We explored the preferences, needs, and barriers regarding RTW interventions, including opinions about the use of digital approaches to deliver such interventions. Methods We conducted a qualitative study based on interviews with 30 patients with BC and 18 healthcare providers in four French regions. Emergent themes were identified using thematic content analysis. Results Most providers declared that they did not proactively address RTW with patients, mainly due to having other priorities and a lack of knowledge. The following themes emerged: several development and deployment barriers regarding RTW interventions exist, multidisciplinary interventions are preferred, and there is a need to maintain contact between the patient and workplace during sick leave, including pathways and interlocutors that can facilitate RTW. Participants had mostly positive representations of using digital tools to facilitate RTW; however, fear of loss of human contact and the exacerbation of inequalities were identified as possible risks associated with the development of digital-only interventions. Conclusions Interventions blending the needs and preferences of patients with BC and the healthcare system are warranted. A personalized multimodal approach with mixed digital and in-person features has surfaced as a possible solution to address the weaknesses of existing interventions. Implications for Cancer Survivors: Since most women work at the time of diagnosis, it is of particular relevance to build interventions promoting RTW.

© Martin E; Di Meglio A; Menvielle G; Arvis J; Bourmaud A; Michiels S; Pistilli B; Vaz-Luis I; Dumas A, Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer, 2022 Jul 12

Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) interventions on return to work (RTW) in cancer survivors, compared to usual care, and to determine the dose of PA needed to improve this outcome. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Six electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched to identify studies, and completed by a search of grey literature and health organization websites. Two authors performed screening, selection, and data extraction independently. Study and intervention characteristics were extracted and summarized. Pooled risk ratio (RR) was estimated using a weight random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 2655 records were identified, of which 8 intervention studies were included. The sample size of the included studies varied between 41 and 240, giving a total of 1087 participants aged between 18 and 75 years. Compared with usual care, PA interventions had a significant positive effect on RTW among cancer survivors with a pooled RR of 1.29 (95% CI 1.17, 1.42). We found that PA interventions (aerobic and resistance exercises) with an exercise dose between 7.6 METs.h/week and 15 METs.h/week, consisting in 50-60 min per session of moderate to vigorous physical exercise, twice a week seems relevant in improving RTW. Conclusions Our results showed, with moderate quality evidence that PA interventions are more effective than usual care in increasing the rate of RTW in cancer survivors.

© Wilson TN; Nambiema A; Porro B; Descatha A; Aublet-Cuvelier A; Evanoff B; Roquelaure Y, Journal of occupational rehabilitation, 2022 Jul 02

Purpose Research has indicated that managerial contact with cancer survivors during a long absence from work is related to cancer survivors’ inclination to return to work. The present study explored the roles of cancer survivors’ perception of supervisor resistance to return to work (RTW) and symptom severity in the relationship between supervisor-initiated contact during the cancer survivors’ absence from work and successful work sustainability (SWS). Methods Israeli cancer survivors (N = 149) who had been working at least 6 months after the termination of treatment completed online questionnaires. The scales measured frequency of contact, perceived supervisor resistance to RTW, SWS, and symptom severity. To test the relationship between perceived and actual resistance, a partial sample of the cancer survivors’ direct supervisors (N = 49) reported their resistance to RTW of cancer survivors. Results The results show that perceived supervisor resistance mediated the relationship between supervisor-initiated contact during absence and SWS. Symptom severity moderated the negative effect of perceived supervisor resistance on SWS: The relationship was stronger for cancer survivors experiencing severe symptoms. Cancer survivors’ perception of supervisor resistance to RTW was positively related to their supervisors’ self-report of resistance. Conclusion These results suggest the need for clear guidelines and managerial training programs regarding contact and communication with cancer survivors during long absences from work.

© Yagil D; Cohen M. Work. Jul 2022, p1-8.

Juin 2022

Purpose Promoting the return to work of breast cancer survivors is of major interest to patients, healthcare and occupational health professionals, companies, governments, and researchers worldwide. We previously conducted a French consensus study resulting in a model describing the multifactorial process of the return to work of breast cancer survivors (the REWORK-BC model). Other work has identified the transtheoretical model as a relevant theoretical framework for interventions to promote the return to work of cancer survivors. In this opinion paper, we provide a theoretically-based clinical framework describing how to support breast cancer survivors at each stage of the return-to-work process. Results This clinical framework considers several essential aspects of supportive care for breast cancer survivors returning to work, such as: (i) helping the patient actively self-manage, by considering her to be the main decision-maker; (ii) respecting and adapting to the patient's choice of professional project; (iii) respecting the temporality of the patient's choices; (iv) proposing tailored interventions; (v) implementing simple tools to promote the return to work, shared representation between the patient and a multidisciplinary team, and improvement of working conditions and the knowledge of health and occupational professionals, and managers or employers; and (vi) maintaining certain flexibility aimed at proposing, but never imposing, changes in practices. Conclusions This clinical framework, specific to breast cancer survivors, could be extrapolated to other tumor types, offering a practical guide for healthcare and occupational health professionals to better understand the return-to-work process of cancer survivors. This clinical framework aims to be a usable tool for any hospital or cancer care center wishing to implement a patient-centered intervention that promotes returning to work, regardless of the country.

© Porro B; Campone M; Moreau P; Roquelaure Y. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health. 19(9), 2022 Apr 22

Purpose This study aimed to understand Canadian cancer survivors' experiences during the return-to-work (RTW) process. Methods A prospective qualitative longitudinal design was employed using the principles of phenomenological inquiry. Cancer survivors took part in three in-depth interviews: at the end of treatment, and 3 and 9 months after the first interview. Transcripts were analyzed using constant comparative analysis, guided by the Cancer and Work model. Results A total of 38 in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 participants. The resultant themes were: (1) supports received or desired to enable RTW; (2) others' limited understanding of the long-term impacts of a cancer diagnosis and its treatment; (3) worries and self-doubts about returning to work; and (4) changing perspectives on life and work after cancer. Conclusions Cancer patients returning to work after treatment often experience challenges throughout the process, including varying levels of support from others and a range of ongoing effects and motivation to RTW. There is a clear gap in terms of the professional supports available to these individuals. Future research should focus on investigating how to improve both quality and accessibility of supports in a way that is personalized to the individual.

© Urquhart R; Scruton S; Kendell C. Current Oncology. 29(5):3013-3025, 2022 Apr 23.

Purpose The aim of this paper was to critically appraise the evidence produced between 2008–2017 on several key stages of the return to work process against the key stakeholders identified in the articles included. Methods A systematic search was done on four databases to identify relevant papers. Papers were selected based on pre-defined selection criteria. A qualitative evidence synthesis was performed on the articles included. Results A total of 57 articles were included in the analysis. Using the secondary thematic analysis, this study identified three categories of articles relative to the stakeholders included: articles focusing on patients’ experience (n = 41); articles dealing with multiple stakeholders, including patients (n = 12); and articles drawing on stakeholders other than patients ( = 4). The analysis also revealed five key stages of the return to work process which follow a sequential order and provide a comprehensive image of the process. Conclusions More research is required on how employers view and can facilitate the return to work process after cancer. New forms of support must be planned and delivered by health professionals for patients who return on the labour market. The five stages model proposed in this study can help employers and policymakers to plan and deliver tailored legislation and guidance for RTW facilitation. All stakeholders must be further trained to embrace the idea that return to work is a complex process which continues long after the survivor returns to work.

© Popa, AE. Work. Jun2022, p1-12.

Purpose As a result of the cancer diagnosis and the mostly multimodal, stressful therapy, psychological distress is a common symptom in breast cancer patients. Methods As part of this prospective study, 1400 patients who were admitted to the hospital for oncological rehabilitation were screened for distress and somatic, therapy-induced secondary disorders. Results Mean distress in the screened population was 5.6 ± 2.56 (range 0-10). In 942 cases (67.3%) a significant distress score (≥ 5) was detected and in 587 cases (41.9%) very high levels of distress (≥ 7) was observed. Psychological distress significantly correlated with younger age, presence of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), tumor recurrence and metastasis, and inability to work. Treatment-induced side effects such as lymphedema, CIPN or extensive tumor resection (mastectomy) showed a (not significant) trend for higher distress. Conclusion The high incidence of distress underscores the importance of psycho-oncological therapy offers and the great importance of occupational measures during oncological rehabilitation such as the importance of a successful return to work for a better quality of life in breast cancer patients.

© Hass HG; Seywald M; Wöckel A; Muco B; Tanriverdi M; Stepien J. Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics. Jun2022, p1-7

Purpose Breast cancer survivors can be at high risk of having work-related problems. Previous studies suggest that GPs could discuss work participation with cancer patients and provide guidance. The aim this study is to explore the experiences and expectations of breast cancer survivors with their GPs' role regarding guidance on work participation and return to work. Methods A qualitative study with Dutch female breast cancer survivors was held in the Netherlands. Four focus groups with 25 participants were conducted and audio-taped. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Breast cancer survivors reported a wide range of experiences with guidance from their GPs regarding work participation. Patients who contacted their GPs with work-related issues felt listened to during the consultation. Some patients experienced very limited or no guidance, while others were intensively guided by their GPs. The guidance was provided in the form of counseling, psychosocial support, and referral to other health care professionals. When cancer patients experienced problems with reintegration in work, they expected GPs to have a supportive and referring role in work participation guidance. Conclusion In returning to work, breast cancer survivors expect their GPs to play a supportive role, especially when they encounter difficulties in reintegrating. However, their actual experience of guidance received from their GPs varied, from none received at all, to intensive support provided.

© Sarfo MC; van Asselt KM; Frings-Dresen MH; de Jong F; van Dijk N; de Boer AGEM, BMC primary care, 2022 Jun 17; Vol. 23 (1), pp. 152

Mai 2022

Purpose By 2020, the US population living with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) has exceeded 165,000. A knowledge gap exists regarding the factors affecting work ability for these individuals. We sought to characterize the work status, importance of work, and work-related information needs for women living with MBC. Methods We conducted an online survey using an MBC listserv and clinic flyers in 2014-2015. Respondents working at the time of MBC diagnosis were divided into "stably-working" and "no-longer-working" based on employment status at the time of survey. Comparisons were made with chi-square or two-tailed t test. Results Respondents (n = 133) were predominantly non-Hispanic White (93.2%); 72 were stably-working, while 61 reported no-longer-working. Those no-longer-working were older (54.0 vs 49.5 years old, p < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.55), further from initial diagnosis of MBC (4.6 vs 3.3 years, p < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.36), and reported high rates of life interference due to MBC (n = 51, 83.6% vs n = 39, 54.2%, p < 0.01, Cramer's V = 0.32). Stably-working respondents considered work to be important (n = 58, 80.5% vs n = 18, 29.5%, p < 0.01, Cramer's V = 0.57); the top reasons cited were financial and/or insurance (80.4%), importance of staying busy (67.9%), and desire to support themselves and family (64.3%). The stably-working respondents more often valued information on how to talk with employers or co-workers about diagnosis (n = 38, 57.6% vs n = 16, 27.1%; p < 0.01), legal rights in workplace (n = 43, 65.2% vs n = 22, 36.7%; p < 0.01), when to think about stopping work (n = 45, 68.2% vs n = 18, 30%; p < 0.01), and applying for disability (n = 42, 63.6% vs n = 26, 42.6%; p < 0.05), when compared to no-longer-working. Conclusion The decision to stop working may represent a subsequent event driven by cancer progression. This research highlights the ongoing need of information targeting MBC to facilitate the management of employment and financial issues early in the MBC trajectory.

© Sesto ME, Carroll CB, Zhang X, Chen KB, Terhaar A, Wilson AS, Tevaarwerk AJ, Supportive care in cancer: official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer, 2022 May; Vol. 30 (5), pp. 4291-4301

Avril 2022

Purpose To evaluate the dynamics of the determinants of returning to work (RTW) in a population of patients treated for breast cancer (BC) in a real-world setting. Methods We conducted a retrospective study including 1278 BC patients working or looking for work at the time of diagnosis. We performed a focused principal component analysis to highlight the dimensions of a persistent decline in work capacity. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of non-RTW 1 and 2 years after treatment. Results One-third (31%, n = 389) of patients continued working during treatment. At study inclusion, 1100 patients had returned to work (89%). Three-quarters (n = 508, 75%) of the women reported a decline in work capacity 1 year after RTW and 22% (n = 148) presented a persistent decline in work capacity 2 years after the diagnosis. The odds ratio for non-RTW at 1 year was significantly higher for patients treated with a combination of chemotherapy and trastuzumab (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07-2.76]), manual workers (OR = 3.99, 95% CI [1.54-10.81]), patients with lower incomes (OR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.29-4.19]), and patients experiencing fatigue (OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.34-2.48]). The odds ratio for non-RTW at 2 years was higher for various occupational categories (OR = 3.49, 95% CI [1.89-6.74] for clerks, OR = 4.58, 95% CI [1.48-12.82] for self-employed workers, OR = 8.98, 95% CI [2.69-27.89] for manual workers), patients with comorbidities (OR = 2.80, 95% CI [1.61-4.93]), and patients experiencing anxiety symptoms (OR = 2.54, 95% CI [1.18-5.76]), while the impact of the type of treatment was no longer significantly associated with RTW. Conclusion The determinants of RTW change over time. Patients should be offered supportive interventions tailored to risk factors and time from diagnosis.

© Hequet D, Hamy AS, Girard N, Laas E, Coussy F, Rouzier R, Preau M, Delrieu L, Dumas A, Reyal F, Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer, 2022 Apr 09

Purpose A high number of breast cancer survivors need to resume work. Therefore, interventions aimed at effective work-related transitions are important. Objective: A systematic review to determine what occupational therapy interventions are effective in work-related transitions of breast cancer survivors. Methods Multiple databases were searched for studies on work-related interventions within the scope of occupational therapy. Studies were included if 70% or more study participants were working age (> 18 years) breast cancer survivors, and work-related transition outcome measures were used. Results The search yielded 2 872 articles, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria. When classified according to the International Classification of Function Framework, quantitative sources focussed on Body Structures and Functions component and Multicomponents (consists of the Body Structures and Functions Component and the Activities Component) showed positive effects on improving the work-related transitions of BC survivors, however, the effects were statistically insignificant and the strength of evidence was moderate. Participants in a qualitative source reported that after they underwent a physical exercise programme their work performance improved. A Multicomponents intervention study showed statistically significant improvements on self-reported work-related outcomes of BC survivors. Low evidence was found for implementing a vocational rehabilitation case management programme targeting the Activities component, which showed positive effects in reducing the sick leave days of BC survivors, but the effects were statistically insignificant. No evidence was found for programmes focussed on restoring the Participation component. Conclusion The evidence included in this systematic review were insufficient to recommend occupational therapy interventions that are effective (showing statistically significant improvements) for work-related transitions of BC cancer survivors.

© Stehle L, Hoosain M, Niekerk LV, Work, 2022 Apr 13

Purpose Considering that breast cancer survivors (BCSs) have been dealing with unwanted job changes after diagnosis, this study aimed to investigate involuntary job changes (unwanted modifications in employment since diagnosis) and explore the association between job changes, involuntariness, and occupational development satisfaction in BCSs 5-6 years after diagnosis. Methods Data were drawn from the mixed-methods breast cancer patients' return to work (B-CARE) study. We surveyed 184 female BCSs who were working at the time of study enrollment during hospitalization (T1), 10 weeks after discharge (T2), 40 weeks after discharge (T3), and 5-6 years after diagnosis (T4) and used descriptive measures and stepwise linear regression models for data analysis. Results The mean age of BCSs was 57 years. A total of 105 participants reported 410 job changes, of which 16.1% were reportedly (rather) involuntary. The most commonly reported involuntary changes were increased workload (15.2%) and increased scope of work (15.2%). In the final model, significant predictors of satisfaction with occupational development 5-6 years after diagnosis were age, state of health ΔT2-T3, state of health ΔT3-T4, and involuntariness of job changes. Conclusions Although the number of job changes alone is not substantially associated with BCSs' satisfaction with occupational development, experiencing involuntary job changes is. Sociodemographic, disease-related, and work(place)-related factors may influence occupational satisfaction among BCSs. Implications for Cancer Survivors: The findings indicate the importance of strengthening one's ability to work as desired to prevent involuntary job changes and enable desired work participation in long-term support. The significance of workplace characteristics highlights the need for employers to encourage satisfying work participation.

© Hiltrop K, Heidkamp P, Breidenbach C, Kowalski C, Enders A, Pfaff H, Ansmann L, Geiser F, Ernstmann N, Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice, 2022 Apr; Vol. 16 (2), pp. 397-407

Mars 2022

Purpose The Core Set for Vocational Rehabilitation (CS-VR) of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) describes the work functioning of individuals in need of VR. We aimed to adapt the CS-VR from the perspective of cancer survivors (CSs) and stakeholders, developing a CS-VR-Onco. Methods We held five focus groups with 17 CSs who were employed at the time of diagnosis, to discuss their work reintegration experiences. After analyzing the focus group conversations, the CS-VR-Onco was developed. During a group interview, eleven stakeholders explored barriers/facilitations in assessing the work functioning of CSs by using the CS-VR-Onco. We applied the framework method and thematic analysis. Results For the focus groups, the CS-VR-Onco of 85 categories emerged, and the ICF chapters of Mental functions, Exercise and tolerance functions, Interpersonal interactions and relationships, Major life areas, General tasks and demands, Mobility, Support and relationships, and Attitudes were prioritized. For the group interview, stakeholders' perspectives can be synthetized into two themes: close to the lived experience and usability criteria. Stakeholders confirmed the categories of the CS-VR-Onco, a checklist that should be used through an integrated approach across multiple disciplines. Conclusions The adapted CS-VR-Onco reflects the CSs' lived experiences of work reintegration and the factors that have influenced this process. The CS-VR-Onco was described as complete and usable through an integrated approach.

© Paltrinieri S, Costi S, Pellegrini M, Díaz Crescitelli ME, Vicentini M, Mancuso P, Giorgi Rossi P, Fugazzaro S, Mazzini E, Escorpizo R, Ghirotto L, Journal of occupational rehabilitation, 2022 Mar 25

Purpose Cognitive symptoms affect cancer survivors' functioning at work. To date, cognitive symptoms trajectories in working cancer survivors and the factors associated with these trajectories have not been examined. Methods Data from a heterogeneous group of working cancer survivors (n = 379) of the longitudinal "Work-Life-after-Cancer" study, linked with Netherlands Cancer Registry data, were used. The Cognitive Symptom Checklist-Work was administered at baseline (within the first 3 months after return to work), 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up to measure self-perceived memory and executive function symptoms. Data were analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling. Results Four trajectories of memory and executive function symptoms were identified. All memory symptoms trajectories were stable and labeled as "stable-high" (15.3% of the sample), "stable-moderately high" (39.6%), "stable-moderately low" (32.0%), and "stable-low" (13.0%). Executive function symptoms trajectories changed over time and were labeled as "increasing-high" (10.1%), "stable-moderately high" (32.0%), "decreasing-moderately low" (35.5%), and "stable-low" (22.4%). Higher symptoms trajectories were associated with older age, longer time from diagnosis to return to work, more quantitative work demands, and higher levels of depressive symptoms at baseline. Conclusions In cancer survivors who returned to work, four cognitive symptoms trajectory subgroups were identified, representing different but relatively stable severity levels of cognitive symptoms. Implications for Cancer Survivors: To identify cancer survivors with higher symptoms trajectories, health care providers should assess cognitive symptoms at baseline after return to work. In case of cognitive symptoms, it is important to also screen for psychological factors to provide appropriate guidance.

© Ehrenstein JK, van Zon SKR, Duijts SFA, Stewart RE, Almansa J, Amick BC 3rd, Schagen SB, Bültmann U, Journal of cancer survivorship: research and practice, 2022 Mar 21

Purpose Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in females worldwide. While work is important for well-being, 84% of women in Ireland temporarily or permanently cease working up to six months post-breast cancer diagnosis. Under Irish law, there is a right to reasonable work accommodations, however paid sick leave is not state-mandated. Legislation internationally varies across nations. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women who have had breast cancer returning to, and/or remaining in work, in the context of employment legislation. Methods Fifteen women with breast cancer, fifteen healthcare professionals, and nine employers nationwide participated in a qualitative-descriptive design, using semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and data analysed using thematic analysis. Results Thirty-nine participants were recruited. A prominent theme from interviews was that most women with breast cancer and healthcare professional cohorts were not aware of employment rights in the context of cancer diagnoses. This is in contrast to employers. Experiences of sick leave and pay entitlements varied amongst women with breast cancer with financial pressure and expediated the return to work evident for some participants. Most women did not report any discrimination on returning to the workplace, although there were examples of indirect discrimination where unfair expectations were being placed on women by colleagues. Conclusions Education and awareness on employment rights and entitlements during and after cancer treatment is warranted. This could be incorporated into work-focused interventions to support those living with and beyond cancer to transition back into the workplace.

© Algeo N; Bennett K; Connolly D, Work, 2022 Mar 04

Purpose The study aims to describe work status at diagnosis and 8 years post-diagnosis in a nationwide sample of breast cancer survivors (BCSs), and investigate associated and self-reported factors of reduced work status. Methods Women aged 20-65 years when diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer (BC) in 2011 or 2012 were invited to participate in a questionnaire study in 2019 (n = 2803), of whom 49% (n = 1361) responded. For this sub-study, we included 974 BCSs below the legal retirement age in Norway (< 67 years) at survey and with complete work status data. Reduced work status was defined as being in paid work at BC diagnosis and not working at time of survey. Logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with reduced work status. Results Of BCSs who were in paid work at diagnosis (n = 845), 63% maintained their work status to 8 years later. Reduced work status was associated with not living with children (OR .44, 95% CI .24-.82), age (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.21), chemotherapy (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.61), > 2 comorbid conditions (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.16-4.32), cognitive function (OR .99, 95% CI .98-.99), fatigue (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), and neuroticism (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.00-2.46). BC and late effects were reported as reasons for reduced work status and disability. Conclusions The majority of BCSs who were in paid work at diagnosis were working 8 years later. Implications for Cancer Survivors: Our results suggest a need to focus on fatigue and reduced cognitive function among long-term BCSs, with the ultimate aim of improving work sustainability.

© Bøhn SH, Vandraas KF, Kiserud CE, Dahl AA, Thorsen L, Ewertz M, Lie HC, Falk R, Reinertsen KV, Journal of cancer survivorship: research and practice, 2022 Mar 22

Février 2022

Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the change in employment status in survivors with occupational cancers at the time of diagnosis until 2 years. Methods In this study, we included 382 occupational cancer workers from Labor Insurance Database. After applying exclusion criteria, 86 workers in 2004 to 2015 were included. The mean age of cancer workers were 51.38 ± 9.1119 years old and the average salary of industry of NTD 31,492 ± 10,696. Results Salary adjustment was the most change in the employment status in cancer survivors. Salary adjustment (37%), 28- to 45-year-old group (55%), male (30%), and Southern district (34%), had the most workers on day 730. Wholesale and Retail Trade had the most of percentage of cancer survivals remained on workplace. Conclusions Change of employment status in cancer survivors are important to decrease the impact of economic burden on society.

© Lim ZW; Wang CC; Wu WT; Chen WL, Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2022 Feb 01; Vol. 64 (2), pp. 158-165

Purpose Limited research exists on the employment experiences of rural women cancer survivors, yet this population may face unique barriers to employment following a cancer diagnosis. This study aims to identify facilitators and barriers to employment for rural women cancer survivors. Methods We used a qualitative descriptive design to examine facilitators and barriers to employment for rural women cancer survivors. We conducted interviews with 33 rural women with cancer histories. Results Facilitators of employment included paid time off, flexible work arrangements, and supportive workplace social networks, while barriers to employment included compromised immunity, long-term treatment effects, stigma and discrimination, and limited rural job markets. Rural women with secure employment histories generally experienced facilitators of employment, while rural women with insecure (e.g., temporary, informal, non-standard) employment histories generally faced barriers to retaining jobs and finding employment. Conclusions Formal and informal workplace support helped rural women retain their jobs during and following cancer treatment, especially those with secure employment. However, women with insecure employment histories generally faced multiple barriers to retaining and finding employment. More inclusive policies to support workers facing disabling illnesses, such as paid medical leave, are needed to ensure cancer survivors can maintain employment and/or financial security during and following their cancer treatment. Implications for Cancer Survivors: Cancer survivors with secure employment may benefit from formal and informal workplace support in retaining their employment. Those with insecure employment histories may benefit from access to job placement services and inclusive policies protecting employment for all workers experiencing disabling illness.

© Hallgren E; Ayers BL; Moore R; Purvis RS; McElfish PA; Maraboyina S; Bryant-Smith G, Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice, 2022 Feb 10

Janvier 2022

Purpose Aim of the study was to compare working and non-working patients over a period of 12 months regarding socio-demographic, cancer-specific and mental health parameters. Methods This study was conducted as part of a Germany-wide longitudinal survey among 1398 patients in 13 national Comprehensive Cancer Centers. The sample used for analysis consisted of n = 430 cancer patients younger than 65 years (age M = 52.4 years, SD = 8.1; 67.0% females). Socio-demographic, cancer-specific and mental health parameters (Depression: Patient Health Questionnaire, Anxiety: Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, Distress: Distress Thermometer) were assessed at baseline during hospitalization and at 12 months follow-up. Results 73.7% of all patients (n = 317) have returned to work after one year. While working and non-working patients did not differ in socio-demographic parameters, there were significant differences in the presence of metastases, tumor and treatment status. Mixed analysis of variances revealed significant interactions between working status and time for depression (p = 0.009), anxiety (p = 0.003) and distress (p = 0.007). Non-working patients reported higher levels of depression, anxiety and distress than working patients over time. A logistic regression showed significant associations between lower depression (p = 0.019), lower distress (p = 0.033) and the absence of a tumor (p = 0.015) with working status. Conclusions The majority of cancer survivors returned to work. Non-working patients had higher levels of depression, anxiety and distress than working patients. After controlling for cancer-specific factors, mental health parameters were still independently associated with working status. Return to work can thus be associated with an improved mental health in cancer survivors. In order to establish causality, further research is necessary.

© Lieb M, Wunsch A, Schieber K, Bergelt C, Faller H, Geiser F, Goerling U, Honig K, Hornemann B, Maatouk I, Niecke A, Stein B, Teufel M, Wickert M, Buttner-Teleaga A, Erim Y, Weis J, Psycho-Oncology. 2022 Jan 05.

Purpose Although family members play an important role in various aspects of coping with cancer and are significantly affected by it, little is known about their perspectives regarding return to work (RTW). This study explored attitudes and experiences of cancer survivors' family members related to cancer survivors' RTW. Methods The present study consists of a qualitative research design, employing in-depth semistructured interviews with first-degree family members (N = 21) of cancer survivors who were approached through online social networks: spouses, children, parents and siblings. Grounded theory techniques were used for data analysis. Results Four themes emerged from the interviews: (a) the family's cautious voice in return-to-work decision making; (b) work-home imbalance; (c) inhibiting or promoting the effect of work on the recovery process and (d) expectations and appreciation of unconditional workplace support. Conclusions The findings suggest that psychosocial and health care professionals should help family members play an active role in the decision of RTW. Professionals should also prepare family members for potential costs of RTW for the family and help them develop realistic expectations regarding workplace support of the cancer survivor.

© Yagil D, Goldblatt H, Cohen M, Health & Social Care in the Community. 30(1):184-192, 2022 01.

Purpose This study aimed at (1) investigating the work status of men treated by radical prostatectomy due to diagnosis of localized prostate cancer (LPCa) three years after having attended a cancer rehabilitation program and (2) identifying prospective risk factors for not working at this time point. Methods In a longitudinal, questionnaire-based multicenter study, 519 working-age LPCa survivors reported on their work status 12 and 36 months following rehabilitation. Chi-square tests/t tests and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify prospective factors associated with not working at 36 months follow-up. Results Nearly three quarter of LPCa survivors (N = 377, 73%) worked 3 years after post-acute rehabilitation. Most participants (N = 365, 71%) showed continuous return-to-work (RTW) patterns as they worked both 1 and 3 years following rehabilitation. Multivariable regression analysis revealed older age, low or middle socio-economic status as well as resigned and unambitious work behavior and fatigue at the time of attending the rehabilitation program to be prospective factors for not working at 36 months follow-up. Low socio-economic status [Odds ratio (OR) 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.07-11.16] and unambitious work behavior [OR 4.48, 95% CI 2.16-9.31] were the strongest predictors. Conclusion Long-term work retention is a realistic goal among LPCa survivors. The results contribute to the identification of at-risk LPCa survivors early in the RTW process. Special attention should be paid to social inequality. Further, interventions related to the management of fatigue and work-related coping styles could improve long-term RTW, as these were relevant, but potentially modifiable factors impeding work retention.

© Ullrich A, Rath HM, Otto U, Kerschgens C, Raida M, Hagen-Aukamp C, Bergelt C, Supportive Care in Cancer. 30(1):843-854, 2022 Jan.

Décembre 2021

Purpose Return to work (RTW) is a major goal to promote cancer survivors' social participation. Objective: This study describes the multidisciplinary social-healthcare pathway called UNAMANO, conceived to support RTW in this population. Methods UNAMANO was developed by the Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, in partnership with the local branch of the Italian Medical Association, nonprofit associations, vocational training institutions, social cooperatives, a labour union, and a chartered accounting firm. Results UNAMANO is directed towards employed individuals diagnosed with cancer living in the province of RE. It was developed through four actions: A) training healthcare professionals on work-related occupational rehabilitation; B) dissemination among community and stakeholders; C) recruitment and training of volunteers; D) cancer survivor engagement and provision of a personalized comprehensive intervention. This consists in providing information and either occupational therapy to overcome barriers and facilitate RTW or social support through re-training and tailored job search strategies based on individual risk of job loss. Conclusions UNAMANO is the first Italian multidisciplinary social-healthcare pathway supporting RTW of cancer survivors. Addressing a wide area of cancer survivors' needs, it provides personalized intervention to resolve work-related issues. We propose this patient-centred RTW model to promote an easier transition from hospital to community.

© Paltrinieri S, Ricchi E, Mazzini E, Cervi E, Sandri E, Fugazzaro S, Costi S, Work, 2021 Nov 25

Purpose The aims of this study were to examine (1) the longitudinal associations of supervisor and colleague social support with work functioning in cancer patients who have returned to work and (2) the moderating role of social support at home. Methods Data from the longitudinal Work Life after Cancer study were used (n = 384). Work functioning (low versus moderate to high work functioning) was measured with the validated Work Role Functioning Questionnaire 2.0. Social support at work was measured from both supervisor and colleagues with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Social support at home was measured with the Social Support List-Discrepancies. Logistic generalized estimating equations were used to analyse associations between supervisor and colleague social support and work functioning, and to examine the possible moderating effect of social support at home. Results More supervisor (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.32) and colleague (1.13; 1.03, 1.24) social support were significantly associated with moderate to high work functioning. The association between colleague social support and work functioning was attenuated for those who did not experience enough social support at home but remained almost significant for supervisor social support (1.17; 1.00, 1.37). Conclusions Supervisor social support is associated with better work functioning regardless of social support at home, while colleague social support is only associated with better work functioning when cancer patients experience enough social support at home. Occupational physicians may play a key role in creating awareness that social support at work and at home are beneficial for cancer patients' work functioning.

© Schallig MMT, Bültmann U, Ranchor AV, van Zon SKR, Journal of cancer survivorship: research and practice, 2021 Nov 24

Purpose Validation studies have not been able to confirm the stage-specific understanding as operationalised in the readiness for return to work (RRTW) questionnaire. Objective: To explore retrospectively how working female cancer survivors experienced the process of becoming ready to RTW during and beyond participation in an occupational rehabilitation intervention and thereby expand the understanding of the RRTW construct. Methods A qualitative research design was employed. Thirteen female cancer survivors were included for semi-structured interviews one to two years after they had completed active treatment and returned to work. The RRTW construct guided data generation and analysis. Content analysis was performed in four analytical steps that combined a concept-driven and a data-driven analytic strategy. Results Three themes were identified; "To have and then lose the safety net", "Realise a changed life situation", "Strive to balance work and everyday life". In a time span of approximately one to two years (from receiving treatment, being enrolled in an intervention and to gradually returning to work); the identified themes were interdependent of each other as one theme gradually evolved to the next theme in the process of engaging in sustained work participation. Conclusions The present study points towards continuous development of the RRTW construct and whether the addition of a preparedness dimension would improve validity.

© Petersen KS, Anth Madsen LS, Nielsen CV, Labriola M, Stapelfeldt CM, Work, 2021 Nov 28

Purpose People with a cancer diagnosis experience physical and emotional impacts that may affect employment. Alongside cancer care costs, reduced ability to generate an income is a key contributor to financial toxicity which is associated with poor emotional wellbeing, quality of life, treatment adherence and survival. This study aimed to explore people's experiences of changes to employment and their suggestions for how cancer survivors can be better supported. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 21 cancer survivors identified as part of a larger study of emotional distress. Purposive sampling was used to include a diverse group of people across age, gender, tumour type, self-reported financial difficulties and employment status. Interviews were inductively and iteratively coded by two independent coders and analysed using thematic analysis. Results There is a dynamic relationship between a person's cancer treatment and their employment. For some, employment was disrupted due to physical or emotional impacts of cancer, or workplace stigma and discrimination. Others continued to work at the detriment of their health. Participants wished they had been made aware earlier how cancer might impact their capacity to work, their finances and their health. There was a lack of knowledge on the financial supports that may be available to them. Conclusions Healthcare professionals may have a role in minimising the financial impact of a cancer diagnosis through early assessment, communication of patients' potential work capacity and appropriate referrals to occupational therapy to aid return to work or financial planning. A robust government social support system specifically for households experiencing cancer is urgently required.

© Carlson MA, Fradgley EA, Bridge P, Taylor J, Morris S, Coutts E, Paul C, Supportive care in cancer, 2021 Dec 01

Novembre 2021

Purpose The objective of this current study was to describe the status of returning to work and work ability of colorectal cancer survivors and identify the key factors associated with returning to work and work ability of Chinese colorectal cancer patients. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 212 colorectal cancer survivors who have worked before their colorectal cancer diagnosis. We evaluated patient's return to work (Yes/No), work ability, and factors by questionnaires of the Work Ability Index (WAI), M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory for Gastrointestinal (MDASI-GI), and the Self-Report Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS-SR). Logistic regression analysis and linear regression were used to find the potential predictors with returning to work and work ability. Results Participants mostly 145 have returned to work (68.4%). Work ability and psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors were at a moderate level. After completing treatment, the patient still had many symptoms, and these symptoms were distress to live. In the two models, survivors with higher family monthly income per capita and lower psychosocial adjustment scores were more likely to have higher work ability and return to work. Survivors with lower symptom distress were more likely to have higher work ability (r =  - 0.038, p = 0.010). Survivors with higher work ability were more likely to return to work (OR = 1.193, 95% CI = (1.116,1.274)). Conclusion This study confirmed that symptom distress and psychosocial adjustment were significantly associated with colorectal cancer survivors' returning to work and work ability, which should be considered in future intervention research.

© Zhang Y, Zhu M, Wu X, Meng Y, Pu F, Zhang M, Supportive care in cancer, 2021 Nov 06

Purpose Prompt services and work-focused support systems are needed to aid cancer survivors returning to work or finding work. This knowledge translation and implementation project focused on the knowledge users' experience and need for refinement of three work-focused tools to support return to work and maintain work following cancer through their participation in a hands-on workshop. The tools assessed for their utility are a Job Analysis Tool (JAT), a Return to Work (RTW) tool, and a bilingual Canadian website on Cancer and Work. Methods Four workshops took place in three Canadian cities. Participants included cancer survivors, healthcare professionals, and employer representatives. Following an overview of the website and tools, workshop participants (N = 28) completed qualitative and quantitative satisfaction and usability questionnaires using the System Usability Scale and open-ended questions. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analyses from the think-aloud data and from the four open-ended questions collected during the users' use of the tools and website. Results Overall, most study participants reported high satisfaction with the JAT and RTW tools, the Cancer and work website and the workshop. Good usability scores were reported for the RTW planner (73.65 ± 12.61) and the website (74.83 ± 12.36), and only acceptable usability scores for the JAT (68.53 ± 11.90). Conclusion Overall, the study documented the value of the tools and the website to support the RTW process as assessed by several key knowledge user groups. The JAT is considered a helpful procedure to identify job demands in order to guide job accommodations. Given participants' responses that the tool is useful, the next steps are to implement the recommendations for improvement and knowledge dissemination to increase its uptake and the use of job analysis overall.

© Maheu C, Kocum L, Parkinson M, Robinson L, Bernstein LJ, Zanchetta MS, Singh M, Hernandez C, Yashmin F, Esplen MJ, Journal of occupational rehabilitation, 2021 Nov 20

Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the experience of cancer survivors less than 50 years of age, as they transition back to work after the end of treatment. Methods Eight survivors took part in this exploratory qualitative study. Results The results of the iterative content analysis suggest that these survivors want to put their illness-focused life behind them and resume a "normal" existence, of which a return to work is an integral part. The return-to-work transition is also influenced by various personal, family and societal factors that can facilitate or inhibit the experience. Lastly, a number of distinct challenges and a higher level of vulnerability must be taken into consideration by healthcare professionals to be able to better support these survivors transitioning back to work.

© Fadhlaoui A, Mrad H, Vinette B, Bilodeau K, Canadian oncology nursing journal, 2021 Nov 01; Vol. 31 (4), pp. 393-398

Octobre 2021

Purpose Return-to-work (RTW) is a key unmet need for working age cancer survivors. This study sought to evaluate RTW outcomes of a multidisciplinary intervention provided as routine employee support. Methods In a retrospective cohort analysis, patients with cancer and more than 3 months absent from work were provided an intervention consisting of digital resources and calls with a health coach. Propensity-score matching was used to define a similar cohort of cancer patients absent from work who were not offered the coaching intervention. The RTW rate as a percentage of all participants and secondary outcomes such as the rate of death were measured. The median time to RTW was compared between the cohorts using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results 220 participants enrolled in the intervention, of which 125 met the criteria for analysis. The median follow-up from cancer diagnosis was 79 weeks (IQR 60-106). In the matched control group, 22 returned to work (17.6%) compared with 38 (30.4%) in the intervention group (P=.02). Nineteen matched controls died prior to claim closure (15.2%) compared with 13 in the intervention group (10.4%; P=.26). Kaplan-Meier estimated median time for the first 15% of the cohorts to RTW was 87.1 weeks for the matched control (CI 60.0-109.1 weeks) compared with 70.6 weeks for the intervention (CI 52.6-79.6 weeks; P=.08). Conclusions Patients receiving a remotely delivered coaching program in a real-world setting returned to work at a higher frequency than did control participants receiving usual care.

© Lo J, Ballurkar K, Fox S, Tynan K, Luu N, Boyer M, Murali-Ganesh R, JMIR cancer, 2021 Oct 28

Purpose Work plays a central role in return to a more 'normal' life among women diagnosed with primary breast cancer. However, ongoing cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) and cancer-related sequelae continue to detrimentally impact workability. Only a few studies have explored the long-term consequences of CRCI and self-management coping strategies applied in the workplace. This study explored women's experiences of sustained post-treatment CRCI and its impact on workability beyond the initial return-to-work (RTW), as well as experiences of self-management coping strategies. Methods Forty employed women with a diagnosis of primary breast cancer who were between 6 and 60 months post-active treatment completed a semi-structured telephone interview. A 'framework' analysis approach was used. Results Two superordinate themes were identified: 'Sustained consequences of CRCI' and 'Self-management coping strategies to support work-related performance'. We found that the impact of CRCI extends beyond the initial RTW. The adopted self-management coping strategies could provoke mixed emotions, including emotional distress. Reduced workability was experienced up to 5-years post-active-treatment. Conclusion Sustained CRCI induces negative emotions, fatigue and diminishes confidence reducing workability long into survivorship beyond RTW. The self-management coping strategies implemented to manage these sequelae generate mixed feelings, with some describing the strategies as problematic and of little benefit.

© Chapman B, Derakshan N, Grunfeld EA, Psycho-oncology, 2021 Oct 26

Septembre 2021

Purpose We investigate whether accommodating job attributes influence the probability of returning to work three years after a cancer diagnosis. Methods & results Using a combination of Danish administrative data and a survey carried out among Danish breast, colon, and melanoma skin cancer survivors, we find that the probability of returning to work is significantly and positively correlated with a flexible work schedule during and after cancer treatment. The result is robust when controlling for pre-cancer work experience, job seniority, pre-cancer job dissatisfaction, and post-cancer ability to work. Furthermore, we show that the influence of a flexible schedule varies with respect to cancer survivors' ability to work, level of education, and type of cancer.

© Kollerup A, Ladenburg J, Heinesen E, Kolodziejczyk C, Economics and human biology, 2021 Aug 24; Vol. 43, pp. 101057

Purpose Studies about work and cancer predominantly considered the return to work of cancer survivors. However, some studies highlighted that many patients work with cancer even immediately after the diagnosis. Little is known about the frequency, causes, and consequences of this behavior. This study aimed to estimate how many cancer patients continue working in the month after the diagnosis in an Italian context and to determine which factors affect the decision to stop working in the same period. Methods One hundred seventy-six patients with breast, gastrointestinal, prostate, or female reproductive system cancer completed a survey with demographic, occupational, and psychosocial information. Clinical information was collected from medical records. We measured how many workers continued working in the month after cancer diagnosis without substantial interruptions and selected the best logistic regression model of this behavior's predictors. Results Sixty-eight percent of the patients continued working in the month after the diagnosis. Patients were more likely to stop working with a higher level of perceived work-health incompatibility (OR = 2.64; 95%CI: 1.48-4.69), an open-ended contract (OR = 3.20; CI: 1.13-9.09), and a complex treatment (surgery+chemo-/radio-therapy, OR = 4.25; CI: 1.55-11.65) and less likely with breast cancer (OR = 0.20; CI: 0.07-0.56), and more children (OR = 0.59; CI: 0.37-0.96). Conclusions To continue working with cancer is a common practice among the newly diagnosed. The decision to suspend work activity relates to evaluating how much work activities hamper one's health care needs and the practical difficulties expected in handling cancer care and work.

© Gragnano A, Miglioretti M, Magon G, Pravettoni G, Work, 2021 Sep 04

Purpose Paid work is one of the most important aspects in life among working-aged women diagnosed with breast cancer. Despite several attempts, no previous study provides a comprehensive overview from the women's perspective about factors of importance for being able to work or not. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gain knowledge about factors that women themselves state are of decisive importance for being able to work or not during the first two years after breast cancer surgery. Methods Data was collected in a two-year follow-up questionnaire within the frame of a prospective cohort study of working-aged women who had undergone breast cancer surgery. 749 were included in the questionnaire study and of the 616 (82%) responding women, 462 (75%) wrote statements on an open-ended question about factors of decisive importance for being able to work or not work during the past two years. The statements were analyzed with content analysis. Results Five categories of factors of importance for being able to  work or not were identified, each covering several sub-categories: Health and wellbeing, Contacts and encounters, Flexibility and adjustment possibilities, Socioeconomic consequences from working/not working, and Own motivation and characteristics. A wide variety of factors were mentioned by the women and the findings give a multifaceted picture of many single but interrelated factors of decisive importance for being able to work/not work. The importance of flexibility in the return-to-work process was stressed, as well as the importance of supportive encounters from, e.g., colleagues, managers, as well as relatives. Conclusions The results give a comprehensive overview over a variety of different types of factors for being able to return to/remain in work or to not work after breast cancer surgery, adding new knowledge about e.g. the importance of colleagues, and the women's own preferences or characteristics. These are factors that different stakeholders, both from healthcare but also from the work place and the insurance office, need to be aware of and collaborate around to support women with breast cancer during the period of treatment, rehabilitation and return to work.

© Wennman-Larsen A, Svärd V, Alexanderson K, Friberg E, BMC women's health, 2021 Sep 14; Vol. 21 (1), pp. 332

Purpose A considerable proportion of individuals who are diagnosed with cancer are at a working age. We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of the challenges, and arising needs related to working after cancer in a setting with limited employment protection policies. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with cancer patients who were diagnosed at least 1 year prior to recruitment, and either had paid work, were self-employed, currently unemployed, or currently retired (N = 66). Results Three main themes were identified: (1) loss of income: While some participants were entitled for a 1-year cancer-specific sick leave, many other participants recounted having insufficient paid sick leave, forcing them to take prolonged unpaid leave to complete treatment; (2) dealing with side effects of cancer and its treatment: The need for workplace accommodations was highlighted including flexible working hours, lighter workloads, and dedicated rest areas to enable patients to cope better; (3) Discrimination and stigma at workplace: Some participants mentioned being passed over on a promotion, getting demoted, or being forced to resign once their cancer diagnosis was disclosed, highlighting an urgent need to destigmatize cancer in the workplace. Conclusion In settings with limited employment protection policies, a cancer diagnosis severely impacts the working experiences of patients, leading to financial loss. Urgent interventions and legislative reforms are needed in these settings to address the unmet employment needs of cancer survivors. This study may facilitate planning of local solutions to fulfill the unmet employment needs following cancer, such as return-to-work navigation services.

© Kong YC, Rauf N, Subramaniam S, Bustamam RS, Wong LP, Ho GF, Zaharah H, Mellor M, Yip CH, Bhoo-Pathy N, Journal of cancer survivorship: research and practice, 2021 Oct; Vol. 15 (5), pp. 706-712

Août 2021

Purpose Research recommends the development and evaluation of interventions to support women with breast cancer in returning to, or managing, work. Despite this, there has historically been a paucity of rehabilitation interventions to support women with breast cancer to maintain or return to their work role. The aim of this systematic review was to examine key characteristics of rehabilitation interventions, and their effectiveness on work outcomes for women with breast cancer, compared to usual care. Methods A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies of rehabilitation interventions with work outcomes for women with breast cancer. Six databases were systematically searched: EMBASE, Web of Science, MEDLINE (OVID), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Results are presented either as pooled odds ratio (OR) or pooled effect size (hedges g) between groups, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Narrative synthesis was conducted on intervention outcomes not suitable for meta-analysis. Results Five thousand, five hundred and thirty-five studies were identified. Nine out of 28 abstracts met inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of interventions and outcomes precluded meta-analysis for most outcomes. Of the interventions included in meta-analysis, no significant differences compared to usual care were found for sick leave (2 studies (12 months); OR 1.11 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.87), number of sick days taken (2 studies (six months); difference in effect: - 0.08, (95% CI: - 0.48 to 0.38) or working hours (2 studies (12 months); 0.19, (95% CI: - 0.20 to 0.64). Only one study, with a multidisciplinary intervention, showed a significant difference for work outcomes when compared to usual care. Work-specific content featured in three interventions only, none of which provided conclusive evidence for improvement in work outcomes. Enhanced physical and psychological sequalae, and quality of life was observed in some studies. Conclusion There remains a lack of effective and methodologically rigorous rehabilitation intervention studies for breast cancer survivors. The development and evaluation of effective rehabilitation interventions to support return to work is warranted.

© Algeo N, Bennett K, Connolly D, BMC cancer, 2021 Aug 05; Vol. 21 (1), pp. 895

Purpose This study assesses individual factors that influence return to work (RTW) and in particular on the cancer survivors' ability to prepare his/her job resumption. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 105 cancer survivors after at least 4 weeks after the time of their RTW. Various methods of returning to work were compared between occupational and medical characteristics with multivariate statistical tests. Results Regular contact by a cancer survivor with the company during sick leave is associated with RTW within 1 year of diagnosis (ORaj = 5.78). Optional pre-reinstatement visit with the occupational physician is associated with the absence of employee activity's change (ORaj = 2.30). The cancer survivors who during treatment period ask for an adaption of treatment are more likely to have a change in working conditions (ORaj = 14.5). The adaptation to recovery conditions appears to be associated with survivors' effort to RTW. It should be confirmed with new studies.

© Bellagamba G, Descamps A, Cypowyj C, Eisinger F, Villa A, Lehucher-Michel MP, Psychology, health & medicine, 2021 Aug; Vol. 26 (7), pp. 845-852

Purpose This study aimed at (1) investigating the work status of men treated by radical prostatectomy due to diagnosis of localized prostate cancer (LPCa) three years after having attended a cancer rehabilitation program and (2) identifying prospective risk factors for not working at this time point. Methods In a longitudinal, questionnaire-based multicenter study, 519 working-age LPCa survivors reported on their work status 12 and 36 months following rehabilitation. Chi-square tests/t tests and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify prospective factors associated with not working at 36 months follow-up. Results Nearly three quarter of LPCa survivors (N = 377, 73%) worked 3 years after post-acute rehabilitation. Most participants (N = 365, 71%) showed continuous return-to-work (RTW) patterns as they worked both 1 and 3 years following rehabilitation. Multivariable regression analysis revealed older age, low or middle socio-economic status as well as resigned and unambitious work behavior and fatigue at the time of attending the rehabilitation program to be prospective factors for not working at 36 months follow-up. Low socio-economic status [Odds ratio (OR) 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.07-11.16] and unambitious work behavior [OR 4.48, 95% CI 2.16-9.31] were the strongest predictors. Conclusion Long-term work retention is a realistic goal among LPCa survivors. The results contribute to the identification of at-risk LPCa survivors early in the RTW process. Special attention should be paid to social inequality. Further, interventions related to the management of fatigue and work-related coping styles could improve long-term RTW, as these were relevant, but potentially modifiable factors impeding work retention.

© Ullrich A, Rath HM, Otto U, Kerschgens C, Raida M, Hagen-Aukamp C, Bergelt C, Supportive care in cancer, 2021 Aug 15

Purpose Return to work (RTW) following cancer diagnosis is a challenge for both the patient and society. As thyroid cancer (TC) incidence is increasing, this study aims to assess difficulties in returning to work and income changes in TC survivors 5 years post-diagnosis. Methods This study belongs to the national VICAN survey conducted in France among TC patients diagnosed between January and June 2010. Data were collected through phone interviews, medical surveys and from the national medico-administrative register in 2012 and 2015. We used multivariate logistic regressions to investigate TC impact on employment and income changes. Results Of 146 patients, 121(82.9%) were women; the mean age was 42 years (SD = 8.34), 119 (81.3%) were diagnosed at an early stage, and 142(97.6%) underwent thyroidectomy. At 5 years post-diagnosis, 116 (79.7%) of the TC survivors were professionally active, 22 (15.4%) were unemployed and 8 (4.90%) were receiving disability. Among the patients employed at the time of diagnosis (n = 122), 15 (12.3%) had not returned to work 5 years post-diagnosis. Between 2 and 5 years post-diagnosis, there was no significant improvement in rates of RTW. At 5 years post-diagnosis, 90 (61.6%) reported an income decline. All TC survivors who have not returned to work were women and declared higher fatigue. Moreover, in multivariate analyses, not returning to work was associated with weight gain (OR = 8.41 (1.21; 58.23)) and working arrangements (6.90 (1.18-38.48)), while income decline was associated with comorbidities (OR = 2.28 (1.07; 4.86)) and to be engaged in manual work (OR = 2.28 (1.07; 4.88)). Conclusion This study highlights that, despite a good prognostic, up to 12.3% of TC survivors had not returned to work and 61.6% reported an income decline, 5 years post-diagnosis. Weight gain, fatigue, to be a woman and working-type arrangement were associated with higher probability of not returning to work. TC affects a young working population. Our study identified potentially vulnerable TC survivors and important modifiable factors which may help TC survivors to be professionally active and, therefore, increase their overall quality of life.

© Creff G, Jegoux F, Bendiane MK, Babin E, Licaj I, Journal of cancer survivorship: research and practice, 2021 Aug 12

Purpose Return to work (RTW) is a marker of functional recovery in cancer patients, with quality of life, financial and social implications. We investigated frequency and factors associated with RTW in a cohort of patients younger than 66 years, with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM), uniformly treated with a bortezomib-based induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Methods Socio-economic and working status data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Results One hundred and eighty-six patients entered the study. Of whom, 145 (78%) where employed at diagnosis, which was more frequent in younger (median 55 vs. 60 years, p < 0.001), men (59.3% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.004), and with college studies (44.8% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.008). Forty-three (30%) of the 145 patients who had a job at diagnosis, RTW after ASCT in a median of 5 (range 1-27) months. Factors independently associated with RTW were having three or more children (HR 2.87, 95% CI 1.33-6.18), college studies (HR 2.78, 95% CI 1.21-6.41), and a family income >40 × 10 3 €/year (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.12-4.78). Conclusion In conclusion, the frequency of RTW herein reported in MM patients seems lower than reported in other malignancies. The risk factors observed may guide the design RTW programs.

© Granell M, Senín A, Barata A, Cibeira MT, Gironella M, López-Pardo J, Motlló C, Garcia-Guiñón A, Ben-Azaiz R, Abella E, Soler A, Canet M, Martí JM, Martino R, Sierra J, de Larrea CF, Oriol A, Rosiñol L, Group for the Study of Myeloma and Amyloidosis of Catalonia (GEMMAC), Bone marrow transplantation, 2021 Aug 17

Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate how different cancer-related symptoms influence work outcomes among cancer survivors. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus to identify studies published between 1st January 1999 and 30th October 2020 that investigated the impact of specific cancer-related symptoms on work outcomes among cancer survivors who have completed primary antineoplastic treatment. Study findings were extracted and grouped by symptoms and work outcomes, allowing comparison of associations between these outcomes. Results Seventy-three articles representing 68 studies were eligible for inclusion. From these studies, 27 cancer-related symptoms, 9 work outcomes, and 68 unique associations between specific symptoms and work outcomes were identified. Work status (return to work and employment rates) was most commonly studied, and symptom burden was mainly measured from the patient's perspective. Higher symptom burden was generally associated with trends of poorer work outcomes. Significant associations were reported in most studies evaluating body image issues and work status, oral dysfunction and work status, fatigue and work ability, and depression and work ability. Conclusion Several cancer-related symptoms were consistently associated with inferior work outcomes among cancer survivors. Body image issues and oral dysfunction were shown to be associated with poorer employment rates, while fatigue and depression were linked to lower levels of work performance. Failure to return to work and decreased productivity post-cancer treatment can have negative consequences for cancer survivors and society at large. Findings from this review will guide the development of work rehabilitation programs for cancer survivors.

© Tan CJ, Yip SYC, Chan RJ, Chew L, Chan A, Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice, 2021 Aug 23

Purpose Identifying modifiable factors affecting work ability among cancer survivors is important. The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effects of depression and related psychological factors on work ability among breast cancer survivors in Australia. Methods In this cross-sectional electronic and postal survey, Australian breast cancer survivors were investigated. Work status and conditions before and after cancer treatment were analysed. Work ability was measured using the Work Limitation Questionnaire©-Short Form (WLQ-SF) with its four domains (time management, physical tasks, mental-interpersonal tasks, and output tasks). Three psychological factors were investigated: depression, fear of cancer recurrence, and demoralisation. Sociodemographic and clinical data were also collected. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the associations of psychological factors with WLQ-SF. Results Among eligible survivors, 310 (50%) responded to the survey and were analysed. Nearly one third reported their work conditions had changed after cancer treatment. The depressed group reported limited work ability in 35%-44% of the four domains of WLQ-SF, while the non-depressed group reported limited work ability in only 8%-13%. At-work productivity loss was approximately fourfold higher in the depressed group than in the non-depressed group. In multivariate analysis, at-work productivity loss was associated with depression, demoralisation, and past history of anxiety. Conclusions After breast cancer treatment, work conditions changed toward lower wages and working hours. Depression, demoralisation, and past history of anxiety were associated with lower work ability. Further evaluations of work rehabilitation in breast cancer survivors are warranted.

© Kim SY, Kissane DW, Richardson G, Senior J, Morgan J, Gregory P, Birks S, Ooi C, Lipton L, Antill Y, Vereker M, Michael N, Bobevski I, Psycho-oncology, 2021 Aug 30

Juillet 2021

Purpose With the increasing incidence and earlier onset of cancer, more and more cancer patients are facing the problems of return-to-work. This review is to explore the types, contents, and results of return-to-work interventions for cancer patients. Methods This scoping review followed Arksey and O'Malley's framework and PRISMA-ScR List. Three Chinese databases and five English databases were searched from the establishment of databases to 31 March, 2021. Article selection and data extraction were conducted by two researchers. Results Thirty-two studies and 1916 cancer patients with mainly breast and gastrointestinal cancer were included. According to the contents, interventions could be divided into four types: (1) physical interventions ( n = 6), including high-intensity exercise, low-to-moderate intensity exercise, yoga, and upper limb functional training, (2) psychological interventions ( n = 2), including early active individualized psychosocial support and mindfulness-based recovery, (3) vocational interventions ( n = 14), including making work plans, educational leaflets, vocational consultations, electronic health intervention, and interventions targeting at employers, (4) multidisciplinary interventions ( n = 10), including any combination of above interventions. Physical exercises, making working plans, vocational consultations, educational leaflets, two combinations of vocational and physical interventions were validated to have positive results in enhancing cancer patients' return-to-work. Conclusions Return-to-work interventions for cancer patients are diversified and can be divided into physical, psychological, vocational, and multidisciplinary interventions. Medical staffs can utilize physical exercises, making working plans, vocational consultation, educational leaflets, combinations of vocational and physical interventions to enhance cancer patients' return-to-work. Other interventions still need to be developed and validated.

© Guo YJ, Tang J, Li JM, Zhu LL, Xu JS, Clinical rehabilitation, 2021 Jul 06, pp. 2692155211021706

Purpose This study explores rehabilitation processes in long-term cancer survivors (CSs) and explains the causes, contexts, and consequences under which decisions related to rehabilitation are made. Methods Within the mixed-methods Breast Cancer Patients' Return to Work (B-CARE) project, conducted from 2018-2020, data were collected through a written survey and semi-structured interviews with CSs 5-6 years after their diagnosis. In total, 184 female CSs participated in the survey, and 26 were interviewed. A qualitative grounded theory approach was applied. Results The 26 interviewees were 57 years old on average, 70% were married, and 65% had children. The participants experienced incompatibilities caused by the cancer disease in their areas of life and the demands that arose from it. To reconcile demands from the areas family, work, leisure time, household, and disease, the interviewed CSs used different coping mechanisms and adjusted their lives by prioritizing certain areas as a consequence. This prioritizing was often to the detriment of work and rehabilitation. Furthermore, it worked as a barrier for participation in rehabilitation programs and explains why CSs experienced job changes after their return to work. Conclusions Physical and mental long-term effects were observed in the interviewees' lives 5-6 years into survival. The study results stress the importance of individualized and needs-oriented survivorship care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

© Hiltrop K, Heidkamp P, Breidenbach C, Kowalski C, Streibelt M, Ernstmann N, Psycho-oncology, 2021 Jul 17

Purpose Despite wide recognition of the necessity of an integrative maintenance and return to work (RTW) program for cancer survivors, no such program has been described in the literature. Aims: To examine a working model of an integrative multidisciplinary health care approach for promoting RTW, using the Delphi method. Methods A working model for promoting cancer survivors' RTW by oncology health professionals was subjected to two rounds of evaluation by an expert panel in accordance with the Delphi research method. Twenty-six international experts in oncology (social workers, nurses, psychologists, physicians, and cancer patients) participated in the first round and 16 participated in the second round. Results The mean score of the working model's applicability was 6.07 (SD = 1.07, range = 1-7). The model outlines in detail an integrative approach for promotion of RTW according to two axes: the oncology health professionals' role and the timeline axis featuring four stages of oncology treatment and follow-up. Conclusions Our proposed model addresses the need for an integrated program that may increase the rate of RTW and improve the quality of life of cancer survivors. The model should be subjected to further evaluation, especially its adaptability to different health systems in different countries.

© Cohen M, Yagil D, Carel R, Supportive care in cancer, 2021 Sep; Vol. 29 (9), pp. 5151-5160

Juin 2021

Purpose The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness on return to work (RTW) of an early tailored work-related support intervention in patients diagnosed with curative gastrointestinal cancer. Methods A multicenter randomized controlled trial was undertaken, in which patients were assigned randomly to the intervention or the control group (usual care). The intervention encompassed three psychosocial work-related support meetings, starting before treatment. Five self-reported questionnaires were sent over twelve months of follow-up. Primary outcome was days until RTW (fulltime or partial) and secondary outcomes included work status, quality of life, work ability, and work limitations. Descriptive analysis, Kaplan-Meier analysis, relative risk ratio and linear mixed models were applied. Results Participants (N = 88) had a mean age of 55 years; 67% were male and the most common cancer type was colon cancer (66%). Of the participants, 42 were randomized to the intervention group. The median time from sick leave until RTW was 233 days (range 187-279 days) for the control group, versus 190 days (range 139-240 days) for the intervention group (log-rank p = 0.37). The RTW rate at twelve months after baseline was 83.3% for the intervention group and 73.5% for the control group. Work limitations did statistically differ between the groups over time (p = 0.01), but quality of life and work ability did not. Conclusion Patients in the intervention group seem to take fewer days to RTW, albeit not to a statistically significant extent.

© Zaman ACGNM, Tytgat KMAJ, Klinkenbijl JHG, Boer FCD, Brink MA, Brinkhuis JC, Bruinvels DJ, Dol LCM, van Duijvendijk P, Hemmer PHJ, Lamme B, Loosveld OJL, Mok MM, Rejda T, Rutten H, Schoorlemmer A, Sonneveld DJ, Stassen LPS, Veenstra RP, van de Ven A, Velzing ER, Frings-Dresen MHW, de Boer AGEM, Journal of occupational rehabilitation, 2021 Jun; Vol. 31 (2), pp. 323-338

Purpose The MiLES intervention is a web-based intervention targeted at employers with the objective of enhancing successful return to work (RTW) of cancer survivors. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the employers' use and perceived usefulness of the MiLES intervention. Methods Employer representatives (e.g. Human Resource managers and supervisors) were given access to the MiLES intervention, which contains, among others, interactive videos, conversation checklists and tailored tips. After six weeks, an online questionnaire gathered data on employers' use and the perceived usefulness of the intervention. In-depth qualitative data on these topics were gathered during semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed using a content analysis. Results Thirty-one eligible employers were included. Twenty-two of them filled out the questionnaire and twenty were interviewed. Typically, employers used the intervention 2-3 times, for 26 min per visit. The usefulness of the intervention scored 7.6 out of 10 points, and all employers would recommend it to colleagues. Employers' use decreased when support needs were low and when the intervention did not correspond with their specific situation (e.g. complex reintegration trajectories). Employers perceived the intervention to be supporting and practically oriented. They appreciated the fact that the intervention was web-based and combined visual and textual content. The possibility of consulting specialized services for complex situations would further enhance its usefulness. Conclusion The MiLES intervention provides employers with a useful tool in their daily practice. Its effectiveness for enhancing employers' managerial skills and cancer survivors' successful RTW is subject for further research.

© Greidanus MA, de Rijk AE, Frings-Dresen MHW, Tiedtke CM, Brouwers S, de Boer AGEM, Tamminga SJ, Journal of occupational rehabilitation, 2021 Jun; Vol. 31 (2), pp. 393-404

Purpose To assess the status of returning to work (RTW) following breast cancer treatment and to explore its associated factors among female patients. Methods Four-hundred-forty-two eligible patients admitted in a tertiary hospital since 2012 were followed up in 2018. Information about working status after treatment, date of RTW or reason for not RTW was obtained during a 30-min interview. Patients' sociodemographic, disease, and treatment characteristics were retrieved from the hospital record. Overall prevalence rate and probability of RTW during the follow-up were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with RTW were identified using regression analyses. Results Three-hundred-ninety-six patients (89.6%) completed the follow-up. The median follow-up was 31 months. Among them, 141 patents (35.6%) RTW of whom 68.1% (n = 96) were back within 12 months after cancer treatment. The reported reasons for not RTW included: prolonged fatigue, low self-esteem, lack of support from family and working unit, or voluntarily quitting. Patients aged under 50 years, being single, having higher level of education, not having extensive axillary node procedure, or without any comorbidities were more likely to RTW. Conclusion The rate of RTW after cancer treatment in this cohort was lower than those reported in others. Both personal and treatment factors were associated with RTW.

© Li M, Gao J, Li M, Wang L, Supportive care in cancer, 2021 Jun 16

Purpose Multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare and incurable disease. Because new treatments improved survival rates, return to work (RTW) became more relevant to MM patients of working age. Also, (health care) experts may be confronted with specific obstacles in guiding MM patients' RTW. Therefore, we aimed to qualitatively explore perspectives and experiences of MM patients and (health care) experts regarding RTW and participation at work. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (N = 9) and (health care) experts (N = 15). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results Four themes resulted from the interviews with patients and (health care) experts: (1) severity of diagnosis and treatment impact RTW, (2) step-by-step reintegration facilitates RTW, (3) meaning of work differs between MM patients and experts and (4) lack of tailored counselling by experts. Conclusion Although MM patients' work ability may be limited due to the severity of diagnosis and side effects from treatment, most patients consider RTW important. Both patients and (health care) experts emphasise the benefits from early work ability assessment (in the hospital setting) and specialised RTW counselling, especially in those with physically demanding jobs.

© Bennink C, van der Klift M, Scheurer H, Sonneveld P, Duijts SFA, European journal of cancer care, 2021 Jun 21, pp. e13481

Purpose Due to advances in medical science and technology, the number of cancer survivors continues to increase. The workplace needs and employment difficulties cancer survivors face after treatment need to be addressed to protect these individuals' right to work and to maintain the overall labor force of the country. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study with a follow-up period from 2004 to 2010. All data analyzed in the study were obtained from the Labor Insurance Database, the Taiwan Cancer Registry of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the National Health Insurance Research Database. The relationships between risk factors and the presence of returning to work were analyzed by a Cox proportional hazard model. The survival rates of patients with different cancer stages were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results Among the employees with an initial diagnosis of cancer, 70.4% remained employed through 1 year after the diagnosis, accounting for 83.4% of all cancer survivors; only 51.1% remained employed through 5 years after the diagnosis, accounting for 78.7% of all cancer survivors, a notable decrease. Age, gender, salary, treatment method, company size, and cancer stage were the factors that affected whether employees could return to work or not. Conclusions The long-term survival of people diagnosed with cancer depends on their chances of returning to work. Strengthening existing return-to-work policies and assisting cancer survivors with returning to work after the treatment should be priorities for protecting these individuals' right to work and for maintaining the overall labor force.

© Chen WL, Chen YY, Wu WT, Ho CL, Wang CC, Scientific reports, 2021 Jun 18; Vol. 11 (1), pp. 12858

Mai 2021

Purpose To propose a conceptual framework of the return to work (RTW) of breast cancer survivors (BCS) according to the transactional perspective. Methods The Technique for Research of Information by Animation of a Group of Experts was implemented. For each determinant in an initial list established from the literature, experts selected for the consensus exercise were firstly asked to indicate their agreement level individually, via an online questionnaire. Determinants obtaining an agreement level of 80% or over during this first phase were retained. Determinants obtaining an agreement level below 80%, and additional determinants proposed by the experts, were then discussed collectively. After discussion, experts voted via a new online questionnaire to retain (or not) each determinant. Determinants obtaining an agreement level of 80% or over after this second phase were retained. Based on the determinants selected, a conceptual model was developed following the transactional approach. Results Eleven experts participated in the study. Forty of the 51 determinants listed initially from the literature achieved an agreement level over 80%, and 20 were added after the individual consultation phase. Twenty-two of the 31 determinants discussed collectively were retained. In total, 62 determinants were selected to construct the conceptual model. Conclusions This integrative, operational, and transactional conceptual model of the RTW of BCS, constructed following an expert consensus, will help to design more efficient patient-centered intervention studies. Identification of the 62 determinants associated with the RTW of BCS will help design tools that are easily used by all stakeholders involved in the RTW process.

© Porro B, Durand MJ, Petit A, Bertin M, Roquelaure Y, Journal of cancer survivorship: research and practice, 2021 May 05

Purpose Few studies have investigated the support needed or received by self-employed cancer survivors to continue working. In Norway, the Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV) is responsible for supporting people both practically and financially to continue or return to work following ill health. Social welfare counsellors (NAV counsellors) are responsible for guiding workers in their effort to return to work. This study aimed to investigate NAV counsellors' experiences of supporting self-employed cancer survivors. We also report how self-employed people experienced the support they received from NAV during and after cancer treatment. Methods We conducted individual in-depth interviews among seven self-employed cancer survivors and seven NAV counsellors with experience in supporting self-employed cancer survivors. Results The survivors experienced NAV as largely absent and considered that the support offered was not very useful. The NAV counsellors stated that self-employed workers are in a difficult situation and that regulations and means of support were primarily designed to fit salaried workers. While they felt they were supposed to function as an "employer" for the self-employed, they found this difficult because of lack of time, expertise and means for supporting self-employed. Conclusion These findings suggest that the social welfare system in Norway is not adapted to support sick self-employed people appropriately.

© Torp S, Brusletto B, Nygaard B, Withbro TB, Sharp L, International journal of environmental research and public health, 2021 Apr 15; Vol. 18 (8)

Purpose The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer among individuals in the productive age-group has adversely affected the labor force and increased healthcare expenses in recent years. Return to work (RTW) is an important issue for these patients. In this study, we explored the factors that influence RTW and investigated the influence of RTW on survival outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer. Methods Data of individuals (N = 4408) in active employment who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 2004 and 2010 were derived from 2 nationwide databases. Subjects were categorized into 2 groups according to their employment status at 5-year follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with RTW. Survivors were further followed up for another 8 years. Propensity score matching was applied to ensure comparability between the two groups, and survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results In multivariable regression analysis for 5-year RTW with different characteristics, older age (OR: 0.57 [95% CI, 0.48-0.69]; p < 0.001), treatment with radiotherapy (OR: 0.69 [95% CI, 0.57-0.83]; p < 0.001), higher income (OR: 0.39 [95% CI, 0.32-0.47]; p < 0.001), medium company size (OR: 0.78 [95% CI, 0.63-0.97]; p = 0.022), and advanced pathological staging (stage I, OR: 16.20 [95% CI, 12.48-21.03]; stage II, OR: 13.12 [95% CI, 10.43-16.50]; stage III, OR: 7.68 [95% CI, 6.17-9.56]; p < 0.001 for all) revealed negative correlations with RTW. In Cox proportional hazard regression for RTW and all-cause mortality, HR was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.80-1.54; p = 0.543) in fully adjusted model. Conclusion Older age, treatment with radiotherapy, higher income, medium company size, and advanced pathological stage showed negative correlations with RTW. However, we observed no significant association between employment and all-cause mortality. Further studies should include participants from different countries, ethnic groups, and patients with other cancers.

© Yuan CM, Wang CC, Wu WT, Ho CL, Chen WL, Cancer medicine, 2021 May 14

Purpose A scoping review of international literature was conducted to identify the various problems encountered by women with breast cancer associated with cognitive deficits, and the relationship to work roles and tasks. Method This scoping review was conducted using the structure recommended by Arksey & O'Malley in consideration of the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews checklist and reviewed for quality, inclusion criteria and key findings related to cognitive changes after breast and impact on work. Searches were conducted in five databases from January 2000 to December 2020. Results A total of 34 studies met the inclusion criteria. There were 20 quantitative studies, 11 qualitative studies, one mixed method and two case study reports. Findings related to the type of cognitive changes that impact work performance and participation, how these are measured in a work context and the types of interventions directed towards improving cognitive function at work after breast cancer. An absence of ecologically valid assessments and interventions with a coherent approach to early identification and management of cognitive changes after breast cancer was apparent. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors can experience challenges in their employment due to cognitive deficits, which may lead to the loss of their employment. Health professionals need to explore breast cancer survivors work role and consider appropriate referrals to ensure women receive the necessary support and rehabilitation to address cognitive problems impacting work performance. Further research is needed to develop workplace-based cognitive assessments and interventions to improve the work performance and participation of women with breast cancer experiencing cognitive deficits. Work participation can be negatively impacted by unacknowledged cognitive changes that are not assessed and managed throughout the cancer survivorship journey.Health professionals in health care systems, particularly occupational therapists need to consider appropriate referrals to workplace rehabilitation providers to ensure necessary support and rehabilitation to address cognitive problems impacting on work performance.Occupational therapists performing workplace assessments for women with breast cancer, should assesses cognitive function in accordance with the cognitive demands of the job and work environment, and involve the employer and client in workplace based cognitive interventions.

© Lewis J, Mackenzie L, Disability and rehabilitation, 2021 May 11, pp.1-19

Purpose To investigate the work situation of lung cancer survivors and to identify the factors associated with their returning to work. Methods Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used to evaluate study population characteristics and independent factors of subsequently returning to work. To analyze time to return to work, Cox regression was used. Results The study sample included 232 lung cancer survivors of working age from 717 enrolled participants in the multi-center cross-sectional LARIS (Quality of Life and Psychosocial Rehabilitation in Lung Cancer Survivors) study. About 67% of the survivors were not employed during the survey. More than 51% of the survivors who were employed before their illness did not return to their work. The survivors who had returned to their careers were younger, associated with higher household income, lower fatigue score, and stable relationship and vocational training. Patients who received social service counseling showed a higher chance of regaining their career. Conclusions Lung cancer survivors were found to be associated with a high risk of unemployment and very low professional reintegration after interruption due to illness. More comprehensive studies are needed to support lung cancer survivors and targeting of patients in need of special attention in rehabilitation that would benefit from the findings in the present study.

© Rashid H, Eichler M, Hechtner M, Gianicolo E, Wehler B, Buhl R, Schmidberger H, Stratmann JA, Gohrbandt B, Kortsik C, Nestle U, Wirtz H, Blettner M, Singer S, Supportive care in cancer, 2021 Jul; Vol. 29 (7), pp. 3753-3765