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Consultez les résultats de notre veille scientifique du mois d'août 2023!

Incapacité et retour au travail

Purpose There is a lack of knowledge about interprofessional rehabilitation for culturally diverse patients with chronic pain. This study explores experiences of healthcare professionals developing and working with rehabilitation with patients in need of an interpreter and their experience of working with interpreters. Methods Twelve healthcare professionals at two Swedish specialist rehabilitation centres were interviewed. Grounded theory principles were used for the data collection and analysis. Results The main category "Demanding and Meaningful Work" represents three concurrently interacting categories: "Frustration" includes the informants' doubts regarding the benefits of the rehabilitation, lack of care for patients and cultural dissonance between professionals and patients. "Challenges" describes problems in the rehabilitation work due to the need for interpreted mediated communication, the complexity in health status and social aspects among the patients. "Solutions" represents practical working methods and personal approaches developed by the informants for managing frustrations and challenges. Conclusions The informants' frustration and challenges when working with a new group of patients, vulnerable and different in their preconceptions, led to new solutions in working methods and approaches. When starting a pain rehabilitation programme for culturally diverse patients, it is important to consider the rehabilitation team's need for additional time and support. Implications for rehabilitation: Healthcare professionals who encounter immigrants with chronic pain need resources to develop their own skills in order to handle complex ethical questions as the patients represent a vulnerable patient group with many low status identities. In order to adapt rehabilitation programmes to patient groups with different languages and pre-understandings of chronic pain, there is a need for a team with specific qualities, i.e., close cooperation, an innovative atmosphere, time and also support from experts. For appropriate language interpretation it is important to have a professional interpreter and a healthcare professional who are aware of and adopt the rules, possibilities and restrictions of interpretation. The rehabilitation of patients in need of language interpretation needs more time and organisation compared to the rehabilitation of patients who speak the national language.

© Uhlin K; Persson E; Stalnacke BM; Lofgren M. Disability & Rehabilitation. 45(15):2434-2445, 2023 07.

Purpose People with long-term conditions or recovering from serious injuries can struggle to return to work. The evidence for occupational therapy supporting return to work is limited. We aimed to identify and explain how occupational therapy interventions work. Methods Systematic review. Seven databases were searched between 1 January 1980 and 15 June 2022. Studies measuring work-related outcomes among individuals receiving occupational therapy during absence from paid work were included. Multiple reviewers independently contributed to screening, quality appraisal and data extraction processes. Data were analysed as a narrative. Results Twenty studies with 3866 participants were included; 17 were assessed as having high risk of bias. Occupational therapy was inconsistently acknowledged affecting study identification and occupational therapy components were poorly described. Meta-analysis was unfeasible due to outcome heterogeneity. Individually tailored occupational therapy focused on return to work in musculoskeletal conditions indicated the most promising outcomes. Key intervention components included vocational assessment, goal setting and self-management. Key mechanisms of action included early intervention, individualised support and being responsive to needs. Conclusion Occupational therapists' contributions supporting return to work should be clearly attributed. Future effectiveness research should standardise the measurement of work outcomes to support meta-analysis. Developing a taxonomy for occupational therapy supporting return to work could facilitate comparisons across studies, highlighting occupational therapists' roles and facilitating training and benefits to patients.

© De Dios Perez B; McQueen J; Craven K; Radford K; Blake H; Smith B; Thomson L; Holmes J. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, Jul2023; 86(7): 467-481.

Purpose In recent decades, many countries have implemented return-to-work coordinators to combat high rates of sickness absence and insufficient collaboration in the return-to-work process. The coordinators should improve communication and collaboration between stakeholders in the return-to-work process for people on sickness absence. How they perform their daily work remains unexplored, and we know little about to what extent they collaborate and perform other work tasks to support people on sickness absence. This study examines which work models return-to-work coordinators use in primary healthcare, psychiatry and orthopaedics in Sweden. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all 82 coordinators in one region (89% response rate) with questions about the selection of patients, individual patient support, healthcare collaboration, and external collaboration. Random forest classification analysis was used to identify the models. Results Three work models were identified. In model A, coordinators were more likely to select certain groups of patients, spend more time in telephone than in face-to-face meetings, and collaborate fairly much. In Model B there was less patient selection and much collaboration and face-to-face meetings. Model C involved little patient selection, much telephone contact and very little collaboration. Model A was more common in primary healthcare, model C in orthopaedics, while model B was distributed equally between primary healthcare and psychiatry. Conclusion The work models correspond differently to the coordinator's assignments of supporting patients and collaborating with healthcare and other stakeholders. The differences lie in how much they actively select patients, how much they collaborate, and with whom. Their different distribution across clinical contexts indicates that organisational demands influence how work models evolve in practice.

©  Svard V; Berglund E; Bjork Bramberg E; Gustafsson N; Engblom M; Friberg E. PLoS ONE. 18(8):e0290021, 2023.

Purpose The return-to-work (RTW) process for people with multimorbidity and psychosocial difficulties can be complicated. This study explores the organisational prerequisites for coordinating these patients' RTW processes from the perspective of coordinators in different clinical areas in Sweden. Methods Six focus group interviews were conducted with 24 coordinators working in primary healthcare (PHC), psychiatric and orthopaedic clinics. The data were analysed thematically, inspired by organisation theory. Results Coordinators described varying approaches to people with multimorbidity and psychosocial difficulties, with more hesitancy among PHC coordinators, who were perceived by other coordinators as hindering patient flows between clinical areas. Most organisational barriers to RTW were identified in the healthcare sector. These were long waiting times, physicians drawing up inadequate RTW plans, coordinators being involved late in the sickness absence process, and lack of rehabilitation programmes for people with multimorbidity. The barriers in relation to organisations such as Social Insurance Agency and Employment Services were caused by regulations and differing perspectives, priorities, and procedures. Conclusion Our findings indicate what is needed to improve the RTW process for patients with complex circumstances: better working conditions, steering, and guidelines; shorter waiting times; and a willingness among coordinators from different clinical areas to collaborate around patients. Implications for rehabilitation: RTW coordinators need sufficient physical and psychosocial working conditions as well as clear leadership. In order to avoid inequalities in access to RTW support, better systems are needed to identify patients who would benefit from rehabilitation and RTW coordination. There is a need for multilevel collaboration between clinical areas so that patients with multiple healthcare contacts and prolonged sickness absence can obtain support during the RTW process.

© Svard, Veronica; Jannas, Sandra. Disability & Rehabilitation. 45(18):2915-2924, 2023 Sep.

Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) - a counselling approach offered by caseworkers at the Norwegian Labor and Welfare Administration (NAV) - on return to work (RTW) for individuals sick-listed for >=8 weeks due to any diagnoses. MI was compared to usual case management and an active control during 12 months of follow-up. Methods In a randomized clinical trial with three parallel arms, participants were randomized to MI (N=257), usual case management (N=266), or an active control group (N=252). MI consisted of two MI sessions while the active control involved two sessions without MI, both were offered in addition to usual case management. The primary outcome was number of sickness absence days based on registry data. Secondary outcomes included time to sustainable RTW, defined as four consecutive weeks without medical benefits. Results The median number of sickness absence days for the MI group was 73 days [interquartile range (IQR) 31-147], 76 days (35-134) for usual care, and 75 days (34-155) for active control. In total 89%, 88% and 86% of the participants, respectively, achieved sustainable RTW. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for time to sustainable RTW was 1.12 (95% CI 0.90-1.40) for MI compared to usual case management and HR 1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.44) compared to the active control. Conclusions This study did not provide evidence that MI offered by NAV caseworkers to sick-listed individuals was more effective on RTW than usual case management or an active control. Providing MI in this context could be challenging as only half of the MI group received the intervention.

© Aasdahl L; Standal MI; Hagen R; Solbjor M; Bagoien G; Fossen H; Foldal VS; Bjorngaard JH; Rysstad T; Grotle M; Johnsen R; Fors EA.  Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.  2023 Aug 27.

Trouble musculosquelettique

Purpose Work and health are a national priority in Norway, and leading health authorities call for treatment approaches that incorporate these perspectives. We have little knowledge of how physiotherapists in private practice integrate the work perspective during the treatment of patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to gain more insight into the way physiotherapists in Norway integrate the aspect of work. Methods In 2021, all 2650 privately practising members of the Norwegian Physiotherapist Association received a web-based survey that was answered by 514 physiotherapists. The survey included questions about treatment approaches, competencies, and collaboration with other health professionals in the context of promoting work participation. Results 91% of the physiotherapists reported that they play an important role in assessing work ability. 75% were confident in assessing the patients' work ability, while 25% stated that they have little or some competence. 49% of the physiotherapists often contacted the general practitioner (GP) to discuss patients' ability to work, and 19% were often contacted by the GP. Only 14% stated that they were invited to participate in dialogue meetings with the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration. 28% of the physiotherapists reported that insufficient knowledge about social security issues was an obstacle in promoting the patient's work participation. The physiotherapists believed that increased use of standardised assessment tools, better knowledge of social security issues, and closer collaboration with other professionals may strengthen their role in promoting work participation. Conclusion Although physiotherapists promote work participation when treating patients on sick leave, limited communication with the stakeholders, and inadequate knowledge of social security issues pose an obstacle. To strengthen the physiotherapist's role in the return-to-work facilitation, work and health should become a separate subject in basic and advanced education programmes for physiotherapists.

© Ask T; Dragesund T; Magnussen LH; Eland ND. Physiotherapy Research International. e2045, 2023 Aug 16.

Santé mentale

Purpose Burnout is a work-related mental health problem that often causes long-term sickness absence. Return-to-work (RTW) interventions for burned-out sick-listed employees aim to prevent long-term work disability. This systematic review addresses two questions: (1) Which interventions for burned-out sick-listed employees have been studied?; (2) What is the effect of these interventions on RTW? Methods We performed a systematic literature review and searched PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Science from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2022. We searched for articles of interventions for burned-out sick-listed employees. We conducted the review in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Outcome was RTW. Results We identified 2160 articles after removal of all duplicates. Eight studies met inclusion criteria. RTW outcomes were number of sick-leave days, sick-leave rates, median period of RTW and worked hours per week. Five studies described person-directed interventions, one described a workplace-directed intervention, one described a combination of both intervention types and one study described all three types of intervention. Only the workplace-directed intervention showed a significant improvement in RTW compared with the comparator group: at 18-month follow-up, 89% of the intervention group had returned to work compared with 73% of the comparator group. Conclusion Only a limited number of studies have explored interventions specifically focused on burned-out sick-listed employees and the effect on RTW. Due to heterogeneity and moderate to high risk of bias of these studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the described interventions and their effect on RTW.

© Lambreghts C; Vandenbroeck S; Goorts K; Godderis L. Occupational & Environmental Medicine.  2023 Jul 27.

Purpose The study objective was to design a new theoretically driven multidimensional scale for the use in the empirical measurement of stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with mental illness within the return-to-work process as this integral part of vocational reintegration has been widely neglected by scholars so far. Methods Therefore, we developed and validated a 21-item instrument to comprehensively measure the three-factorial structure of stigmatizing attitudes (affect, cognition, behavior) across two studies (overall N = 251). Results In both studies the new scale proved to be highly internally consistent, and its proposed three-factor structure was equally supported across the two studies. Convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated by moderate and high correlations or zero correlations with pertinent measures. Furthermore, construct validity of the new scale was supported by significant positive associations with relevant personality characteristics within stigma research. Conclusion The WMISS is the first instrument to measure mental health stigma specifically within the return-to-work-process and demonstrates strong psychometric properties. Inclusion of this scale in future research can help facilitate understanding of mental illness stigma within the occupational sector and assist with targeted intervention development.

© Matousian N; Otto K. Frontiers in psychiatry. 14:1225838, 2023.

Purpose To explore how stakeholders in depression care view intersectoral collaboration and work participation for workers with depression. Methods Design: Focus group study applying reflexive thematic analysis using a salutogenic perspective. Setting and subjects: We conducted seven focus group interviews in six different regions in Norway with 39 participants (28 women); three groups consisted of general practitioners (GPs), two of psychologists and psychiatrists and two of social welfare workers and employers (of which one group also included GPs). Results Stakeholders considered work participation salutary for most workers with depression, given the right conditions (e.g. manageable work accommodations and accepting and inclusive workplaces). They also highlighted work as an integral source of meaningfulness to many workers with depression. Early collaborative efforts and encouraging sick-listed workers to stay connected to the workplace were considered important to avoid long and passive sickness absences. Furthermore, stakeholders' views illuminated why intersectoral collaboration matters in depression care; individual stakeholders have limited information about a worker's situation, but through collaboration and shared insight, especially in in-person collaborative meetings, they (and the worker) can gain a shared understanding of the situation, thereby enabling more optimal support. Ensuring adequate information flow for optimal and timely follow-up of workers was also emphasized. Conclusion Stakeholders highlighted the salutary properties of work participation for workers with depression under the right conditions. Intersectoral collaboration could support these conditions by sharing insight and knowledge, building a shared understanding of the worker's situation, assuring proper information flow, and ensuring early and timely follow-up of the worker.

© Meling HM; Anderssen N; Ruths S; Hjorleifsson S; Haukenes I. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. 1-10, 2023 Aug 01.

Purpose Sick-listed workers with depression are at higher risk of long-term, recurrent sickness absence and work disability, suggesting reduced likelihood of sustainable return to work (SRTW). Though likelihood of RTW has been associated with education level, less is known about the association over time, post-RTW. We aimed to investigate associations between educational level and SRTW among long-term sick-listed workers with depression. Methods Nationwide cohort study, based on linked data from Norwegian health and population registries, including all inhabitants of Norway aged 20-64 years on long-term sick leave with a depression diagnosis given in general practice between 1 January 2009 and 10 April 2011 (n=13.624, 63.7% women). Exposure was the highest attained education level (five groups). Three outcome measures for SRTW were used, with 0 days, <=30 days and <=90 days of accumulated sickness absence post-RTW during a 2-year follow-up. Associations between exposure and outcomes were estimated in gender-stratified generalised linear models, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and duration of sick leave. Results Higher-educated workers had a higher likelihood of SRTW 0, SRTW <=30 and SRTW <=90 than the lowest-educated groups in the crude models. Among men, this association was mainly explained when adjusting for occupation. Among women, the highest educated group had a higher likelihood of SRTW 0 (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.71) and SRTW <=30 and SRTW <=90 in the fully adjusted models. Conclusion An educational gradient in SRTW was mainly explained by occupation among men but not among women. These findings suggest gendered differences in associations between education level and SRTW, which could inform interventions aiming to promote equal opportunities for SRTW.

© Meling HM; Ruths S; Baste V; Hensing G; Haukenes I. BMJ Open. 13(7):e072051, 2023 07 27.


Purpose MiLES is a web-based intervention targeted at managers with the aim of enhancing the successful return to work (RTW) of employees with cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of implementing MiLES in organizations, from a manager's perspective. Methods MiLES was implemented as a pilot in four organizations for six weeks. Sixteen managers were included, of which fourteen were interviewed regarding their perceived barriers to and facilitators of implementation of MiLES in their organization. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed with content analysis. Results The managers experienced barriers to and facilitators of implementation related to: (1) implementation responsibilities, (2) the intervention's content, and (3) organizational characteristics. Regarding implementation responsibilities, management board approval and an organizational infrastructure with distinct described implementation responsibilities were perceived as facilitators. Regarding the intervention's content, its accessibility, user-friendliness and completeness were perceived as facilitators. If the content did not meet the manager's specific needs, this was perceived as a barrier. Regarding organizational characteristics, several intangible (e.g., added value of MiLES within different organizations) and tangible (e.g., integration into absenteeism registration) organizational characteristics were perceived as facilitators. The absence of a quiet place to use MiLES was perceived as barrier. Conclusion Implementation of MiLES in organizations may benefit from an infrastructure within the organization that defines responsibilities regarding intervention delivery to managers of employees with cancer. Such an infrastructure should be aligned to existing organizational structures. As per interviewed managers, MiLES has added value in diverse organizations.

© Berkhout MA; Tamminga SJ; de Boer AGEM; Dewa CS; de Jong A; de Rijk AE; Greidanus MA. Acta Oncologica. 1-9, 2023 Jul 28.

Purpose The ability to return to work and remain at work is an important recovery milestone after a cancer diagnosis. With the projected number of colorectal cancer patients of working age likely to increase, it is important to identify when a person is ready to resume work. There are many employment-related tools available to help people return to work after injury or illness; however, it is unknown which may be suitable for a person with colorectal cancer. Aim: To identify tools related to employment readiness in colorectal cancer survivors and to chart the relevant factors of employment assessed by these tools. Method Literature searches were performed in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase and Medline, the Cochrane library and PsycINFO using search terms around cancer, survivorship and employment to identify all peer-reviewed articles published in English up to June 2022. Results Thirty-five studies used a total of 77 tools focused on assessing employment issues experienced by people with cancer in general. Four tools were used with colorectal cancer survivors. None considered all relevant employment-related factors for colorectal cancer survivors. Conclusion Tools used to identify return-to-work and remain-at-work were not specific to colorectal cancer. There are a range of existing tools that collate some, but not all, of the domains and outcome criteria required to meet the employment needs of colorectal cancer survivors. To optimize work outcomes for the working colorectal cancer population, a specified tool is warranted.

© Ding M; Gane E; Wiffen H; Johnston V. Cancer Medicine. 2023 Aug 09.

Purpose Limited research exists on the employment experiences of rural women cancer survivors, yet this population may face unique barriers to employment following a cancer diagnosis. This study aims to identify facilitators and barriers to employment for rural women cancer survivors. Methods We used a qualitative descriptive design to examine facilitators and barriers to employment for rural women cancer survivors. We conducted interviews with 33 rural women with cancer histories. Results Facilitators of employment included paid time off, flexible work arrangements, and supportive workplace social networks, while barriers to employment included compromised immunity, long-term treatment effects, stigma and discrimination, and limited rural job markets. Rural women with secure employment histories generally experienced facilitators of employment, while rural women with insecure (e.g., temporary, informal, non-standard) employment histories generally faced barriers to retaining jobs and finding employment. Conclusions Formal and informal workplace support helped rural women retain their jobs during and following cancer treatment, especially those with secure employment. However, women with insecure employment histories generally faced multiple barriers to retaining and finding employment. More inclusive policies to support workers facing disabling illnesses, such as paid medical leave, are needed to ensure cancer survivors can maintain employment and/or financial security during and following their cancer treatment. Implications for cancer survivors: Cancer survivors with secure employment may benefit from formal and informal workplace support in retaining their employment. Those with insecure employment histories may benefit from access to job placement services and inclusive policies protecting employment for all workers experiencing disabling illness.

© Hallgren E; Ayers BL; Moore R; Purvis RS; McElfish PA; Maraboyina S; Bryant-Smith G. Journal of Cancer Survivorship. 17(5):1338-1346, 2023 Oct.

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of work life on work stress and quality of life in cancer patients returning to work after treatment. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2021 and June 2021 with 302 cancer patients who ad registered at the oncology outpatient clinic of a university hospital and had started or continued work after treatment. Data were collected using a personal information questionnaire, the Perceived Work Stress Scale, and the EORTC QLQ-C30. Results with p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.97 +/- 10.08 years. They were predominantly women, had a diagnosis of breast cancer, and had received chemotherapy. The patients' perceived work stress score was 2.10 +/- 0.68 (level D) and the EORTC QLQ-C30 score was 65.95 +/- 20.11. Women, participants who were worried about their jobs, those who worked >36 months after cancer treatment, public and private sector workers, those who considered leaving their jobs after cancer treatment, and those who considered changing jobs had higher work stress scores. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that perceived work stress negatively affects the quality of life in individuals returning to work after cancer treatment. Therefore, individuals should be supported in returning to work and subsequent phases, and future should focus on the concepts of rehabilitation and return to work.

© Ozer Gucluel Y; Can G. European Journal of Oncology Nursing. 66:102381, 2023 Jul 14.

Purpose The number of survivors of head and neck cancer (HNC) has steadily increased due to major advances in cancer care. However, cancer survivors who experience job loss face different challenges regarding return to work (RTW). Relatively few studies have integrated the experience encountered by patients. This mixed-methods study aimed to explore the experience and challenges of RTW in patients with HNC. Methods Data were collected with structured questionnaires (n = 120) and semi-structured face-to-face interviews (n = 12). Results Relationships were found between patient’s physical status, perceived stress, and social support. Patients who continued work, or not, had significant differences in reported physical function and stress. Four themes emerged from the qualitative data, including the perceived meaning of work, challenges for RTW, preparing for RTW, and social support. After diagnosis and treatment, patients perceived the meaning of work, such as personal value, responsibility, and financial need. They faced many challenges to RTW, including declining physical strength, workload, schedule rearrangement, speech difficulty, and changed appearance. In order to RTW, they prepared extensively and needed support from family and friends. Conclusion This study revealed the experiences and challenges of RTW of patients with HNC. The results allowed us to identify patients’ concerns and ways that healthcare providers could improve the RTW process. Future studies may develop tailored approaches for RTW in healthcare and government policies.

© Lee LH; Yang CI; Chen MK; Hsieh MY; Chen YJ. Work. Aug2023, p1-11. 11p.

Purpose Breast cancer (BC) is the most common invasive cancer in the world. Most BC survivors (BCSs) continue working while dealing with cancer-related disabilities. BCSs' return-to-work (RTW) after cancer treatment is an important stage of their recovery and is associated with a higher survival rate. In this study, we addressed the RTW of BCSs with the intention of facilitating this process through direct action in the workplace. Methods Thirty-two women who requested assistance from January to December 2022 were enrolled in the study. Semi-structured interviews and medical examinations were conducted by a team of three physicians. Interviews were analyzed using Thematic Analysis. Moreover, a quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the health status of BCSs with that of a control group of 160 working women, using standardized questionnaires on work ability, fatigue, sleep problems, anxiety, depression, and happiness. BCSs were also asked to rate the level of organizational justice they perceived at work prior to their illness. Results From the qualitative analysis emerged three facilitating/hindering themes: (1) person-related factors, (2) company-related factors, and (3) society-related factors. In the quantitative analysis, BCSs had significantly higher scores for anxiety, depression, sleep problems and fatigue, and lower levels of happiness than controls. Conclusion The RTW of BCSs entails adapting working conditions and providing adequate support. The work-related analysis of each case made it possible to highlight the measures that need to be taken in the workplace to promote RTW. The treatment of cancer should be paired with advice on the best way to regain the ability to work.

© Magnavita N; Di Prinzio RR; Meraglia I; Vacca ME; Arnesano G; Merella M; Mauro I; Iuliano A; Terribile DA, Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 2023 Aug 19; Vol. 11 (16).

Accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC)

Purpose To gather knowledge about effective return to work interventions for survivors of stroke. Methods A database search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science using keywords and medical subject headings. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (i) studies published in English since the year 2000; (ii) adult patients aged 18-65 with a primary diagnosis of stroke; (iii) working pre-stroke; and (iv) intervention in which one of the primary outcomes is return to work. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed and the evidence synthesised. Results Twelve studies were included, of which three were randomised controlled trials, four were retrospective studies, one was a cohort study, one was an explorative longitudinal study, one was a pre-post treatment observation study and two were pilot studies. The employment rate at follow-up ranged from 7% to 75.6%. Overall, there was limited published evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions to promote return to work for this population, and it was unclear if return to pre-stroke work was the goal. Conclusion A lack of large, controlled trials, variations in follow-up time and the definitions of return to work accounted for the large range of employment rates at follow-up. There is limited published high-quality evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions to promote return to work in working-age survivors of stroke.

© Pearce G; O'Donnell J; Pimentel R; Blake E; Mackenzie L. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health. 20(15), 2023 07 28.