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Consultez les résultats de notre veille scientifique de mai 2023!

Incapacité et retour au travail

Purpose The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is the WHO coding scheme for functioning-related data. Clear and unambiguous information regarding patients' work-related disabilities is important not only for the assessment of entitlement to paid sickness benefits but also for planning rehabilitation and return to work. The objective was to validate the content of ICF and ICF Core Sets for information on work-related disability in sick leave due to depression and long-term musculoskeletal pain. Specific aims: To describe to what extent (1) such data could be linked to ICF and (2) the result of the ICF linking in terms of ICF categories was represented in relevant ICF Core Sets. Methods An ICF-linking study following the ICF-linking rules. A random sample of sick leave certificates issued in primary care for either depression (n = 25) or long-term musculoskeletal pain (n = 34) was collected from a community with 55,000 inhabitants in Stockholm County, Sweden. Results The results of the ICF linking consisted of codings for (1) ICF categories and (2) other health information not possible to link to ICF. The ICF categories were compared to ICF Core Sets for coverage. The majority of the meaning units, 83% for depression and 75% for long-term musculoskeletal pain, were linked to ICF categories. The Comprehensive ICF Core Set for depression covered 14/16 (88%) of the ICF categories derived from the ICF linking. The corresponding figures were lower for both the Brief ICF Core Set for depression 7/16 (44%) and ICF Core Set for disability evaluation in social security 12/20 (60%). Conclusion The results indicates that ICF is a feasible code scheme for categorising information on work-related disability in sick leave certificates for depression and long-term musculoskeletal pain. As expected, the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for depression covered the ICF categories derived from the certificates for depression to a high degree. However, the results indicate that (1) sleep- and memory functions should be added to the Brief ICF Core Set for depression, and (2) energy-, attention- and sleep functions should be added to the ICF Core Set for disability evaluation in social security when used in this context.

© Fresk M; Grooten WJA; Brodin N; Backlund LG; Arrelov B; Skaner Y; Kiessling A. Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences. 4:1159208, 2023.

Trouble musculosquelettique

Purpose Active patient engagement and adherence are essential for successful rehabilitation outcomes, particularly in complex cases such as work-related musculoskeletal injuries. Although the therapist-patient relationship is a significant component of successful care coordination, there has been limited examination of this relationship within upper extremity musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Objective: To explore therapists' perspectives on how the therapist-patient relationship intersects with engagement and adherence in the provision of holistic and collaborative rehabilitation services. Methods Data were collected from four therapists over three months. Descriptive statistics were generated from the Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale (SIRAS) and the Rehabilitation Therapy Engagement Scale (RTES) completed by therapists following visits from a sub-sample of patients (n = 14). Weekly semi-structured group interviews (n = 13) were analyzed using an iterative grounded theory-informed process. Emerging themes were identified, refined, and situated within the context of quantitative results. Results SIRAS scores averaged 14.4 (SD: 1.0) and RTES scores averaged 42.5 (SD: 3.5), indicating high perceived patient engagement and adherence. Four themes emerged from therapist interviews: (1) dynamic power; (2) co-constructed engagement; (3) emotional states; (4) complementary therapy contexts. Conclusion In this engaged and adherent setting, therapist-patient relationships were complex and intimate, and extended beyond education and physical interventions. Careful management of this relationship was central to active patient participation and engagement. Incorporating holistic techniques may provide more structure for managing and communicating these aspects of care. These findings provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of therapeutic relationships on engagement and collaborative care.

© Loomis KJ; Roll SC; Hardison ME. Work, 2023 May 20.

Santé mentale

Purpose Depression and anxiety disorders are the most common cause for disability retirement among people of middle age. The following social disintegration can have an additional detrimental effect on subjects' psychological well-being, which further reduces their chances for recovery. Long-term disability could be avoidable in many cases as depression and anxiety disorders don't have an etiology that makes permanent loss of function inevitable. This prospective cohort study tests the long-term effects of an intervention addressed at these young disablement retirees. Methods Forty-one subjects each in the experimental and control group were followed-up on over a period of 24 months. Results The intervention had positive effects on psychological well-being. More subjects returned to work than controls. The effects were still present at one year follow-up. Conclusion These findings show that an individually tailored return-to-work intervention is a useful, sustainable and economically advantageous therapeutic tool to get out of disability retirement due to mental illness even after all other therapeutic tools have failed.

© Behrens-Wittenberg E; Wedegaertner F. Psychology Health & Medicine. 28(5):1387-1398, 2023 Jun.

Purpose To demonstrate proof-of-concept for a chatbot-led digital lifestyle medicine program in aiding rehabilitation for return-to-work. Methods Design: Retrospective cohort study with pre-post measures. Setting: Community setting, Australia. Participants: 78 adult participants (mean age 46 years, 32% female) with an active workers' compensation claim. Interventions: A 6-week digital lifestyle medicine program led by an artificially intelligent virtual health coach and weekly telehealth calls with a health coach. Main outcome measures: Adherence (% program completions) and engagement (% of daily and weekly sessions completed), changes in depression, anxiety and distress (K10), psychological wellbeing (WHO-5), return-to-work confidence and anxiety and change in work status. Results Sixty participants completed the program (72%), with improvements in psychological distress (p=<.001, r=.47), depression (p <.001, r=.55), anxiety (<.001, r=.46) and wellbeing (p <.001, r=.62) were noted, as well as increased confidence about returning to work (p=<.001, r=.51) and improved work status (p=<.001). Anxiety about returning to work remained unchanged. Participants completed an average of 73% of daily virtual coach sessions and 95% of telehealth coaching sessions. Conclusions Artificial intelligence technology may be able to provide a practical, supportive and low-cost intervention to improve psychosocial outcomes among individuals on an active workers' compensation claim. Further, controlled research is needed to confirm these findings.

© Brinsley J; Singh B; Maher CA. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2023 May 18.

Purpose Work-directed interventions that include problem-solving can reduce the number of sickness absence days. The effect of combining a problem-solving intervention with involvement of the employer is currently being tested in primary care in Sweden for employees on sickness absence due to common mental disorders (PROSA trial). The current study is part of the PROSA trial and has a two-fold aim: 1) to explore the experiences of participating in a problem-solving intervention with workplace involvement aimed at reducing sickness absence in employees with common mental disorders, delivered in Swedish primary health care, and 2) to identify facilitators of and barriers to participate in the intervention. Both aims targeted rehabilitation coordinators, employees on sickness absence, and first-line managers. Methods Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with participants from the PROSA intervention group; rehabilitation coordinators (n = 8), employees (n = 13), and first-line managers (n = 8). Content analysis was used to analyse the data and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to group the data according to four contextual domains. One theme describing the participation experiences was established for each domain. Facilitators and barriers for each domain and stakeholder group were identified. Results The stakeholders experienced the intervention as supportive in identifying problems and solutions and enabling a dialogue between them. However, the intervention was considered demanding and good relationships between the stakeholders were needed. Facilitating factors were the manual and work sheets which the coordinators were provided with, and the manager being involved early in the return-to-work process. Barriers were the number of on-site meetings, disagreements and conflicts between employees and first-line managers, and symptom severity. Conclusions Seeing the workplace as an integral part of the intervention by always conducting a three-part meeting enabled a dialogue that can be used to identify and address disagreements, to explain CMD symptoms, and how these can be handled at the workplace. We suggest allocating time towards developing good relationships, provide RCs with training in handling disagreements, and additional knowledge about factors in the employee's psychosocial work environment that can impair or promote health to increase the RCs ability to support the employee and manager.

© Ida K; Lydia K; Iben A; Gunnar B; Ute B; Kristina H; Elisabeth BB. BMC Public Health. 23(1):940, 2023 May 24.

Purpose The research on return to work for workers with common mental disorders has primarily focused on the pre‐return journey. Relapses and recurrent sick leaves are prevalent and call for research on how we can support workers stay and thrive at work after long‐term sickness absence due to common mental disorders. Methods In the present study, we used Longitudinal Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the experiences of returned workers' post‐return journey and the barriers and facilitators to staying and thriving at work. We conducted monthly semistructured interviews with seven returned workers over a period of 4 months. Results We identified three post‐return trajectories: the thrivers, the survivors and the exiteers. We identified 10 higher order themes and 13 subthemes that influenced these trajectories. At the individual level, wanting to make a valuable contribution and job crafting facilitated a sustainable return. At the group level, we identified social support as a facilitator. At the leader level, line managers making work adjustments and recognising workers as valuable were important, whereas a lack of understanding and conflicts with senior management posed as barriers. At the overarching level, the media influenced organisational values. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for how organisations can facilitate a whole systems approach to support returned workers and prevent sickness absence reoccurrence and job loss.

© Nielsen K; Yarker J. Applied Psychology: An International Review. 2023 May 12.

Purpose The workplace is a vital setting to support positive mental health. Mental health conditions in the workforce contribute to decreased work engagement and participation. There is existing literature on return-to-work (RTW) interventions for individuals with work-related mental health conditions, however, there lacks consensus on their effectiveness. Therefore, the primary aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature and evaluate the effectiveness of return-to-work interventions on return-to-work rates, quality of life, and psychological wellbeing for individuals with work-related mental health conditions. Methods Selected articles were organized and identified using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the Population/Intervention/Comparison/Outcome (PICO) framework. Quality assessment of the included studies was completed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme randomized controlled trials checklist and the Joanna Briggs Institute quasi-experimental studies checklist. A random effects meta-analysis model was performed using DerSimonian-Laird weighting to calculate standard mean difference and risk ratios to assess the impact of RTW interventions on return-to-work rates, absenteeism, stress symptoms, depression symptoms, and quality of life. Results A total of 28 out of 26,153 articles met the inclusion criteria. Diagnoses for participants in the studies ranged from work-related stress to work-related PTSD following exposure to a psychologically traumatizing event in the workplace. No significant differences were found for the meta-analyses examining return-to-work rates, absenteeism, depression, stress, and quality of life. The most effective interventions were found to be a multi-domain intervention (67% of participants RTW full time) and a health-focused intervention (85% RTW rate). Conclusions Future research may consider establishing effective interventions to develop programs or policies supporting the RTW of employees and promote mental well-being among employees experiencing work-related mental health conditions.

© Nowrouzi-Kia B; Garrido P; Gohar B; Yazdani A; Chattu VK; Bani-Fatemi A; Howe A; Duncan A; Riquelme MP; Abdullah F; Jaswal S; Lo J; Fayyaz Y; Alam B. Healthcare, 2023 May 12; Vol. 11 (10).


Purpose A significant proportion of women with breast cancer want to RTW (return to work) after treatment. Employers play a key role in facilitating RTW for these employees who face distinct challenges. However, the portrait of these challenges remains to be documented from the perspective of employer representatives. The purpose of this article is to describe the perceptions of Canadian employer representatives regarding the management of the RTW of BCSs (breast cancer survivors). Methods Thirteen qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives from businesses of various sizes (< 100 employees, 100-500 employees, > 500 employees). Transcribed data were subjected to iterative data analysis. Results Three major themes emerged to describe employer representatives' perceptions of managing RTW of BCS. These are (1) providing tailored support; (2) remaining 'human' while managing RTW; and (3) facing the challenges of RTW management after breast cancer. The first two themes were perceived as facilitating RTW. The challenges identified concern uncertainty, communication with the employee, maintaining a supernumerary work position, balancing employee and organizational interests, reconciling with colleagues' complaints, and collaboration among stakeholders. Conclusions Employers can adopt a humanistic management style by offering flexibility and increased accommodation for BCS who RTW. They can also be more sensitive to this diagnosis, leading some to seek more information from those around them who have experienced it. Employers require increased awareness about diagnosis and side effects, be more confident to communicate, and improved collaboration between stakeholders to facilitate the RTW of BCS. Implications for cancer survivors: Employers who focus on the individual needs of cancer survivors during RTW can facilitate creative and personalized solutions for a sustainable RTW and help survivors recover their lives after cancer.

© Bilodeau K; Gouin MM; Fadhlaoui A; Porro B. Journal of Cancer Survivorship.  2023 May 04.

Purpose Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Survival in these patients has increased because of early diagnosis and multimodality treatment methods. Return to premorbid functional status after treatment is essential for rehabilitation and good quality of life. Many patients suffer from late treatment-related symptoms which affect their return to premorbid status. Various health-related and work-related variables also affect the return to premorbid status. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in which 98 patients with breast carcinoma who received curative treatment were included 6-12 months post-radiotherapy completion. Patients were interviewed to assess their type of work and hours of work prior to diagnosis and at the time of the study. The extent to which they are able to return to their pre-diagnosis level of work was noted and various factors that were hindering them were documented. Treatment-related symptoms were assessed using selected questions from NCI PRO-CTCAE (version 1.0) questionnaire. Results The median age of diagnosis of patients included in the study was 49-50 years. The most common symptoms experienced by patients were fatigue (55%), pain (34%) and oedema (27%). 57% of patients were employed before diagnosis, of which only 20% were able to return to their employment post-treatment. All patients were involved in household work prior to diagnosis and 93% were able to get back to their routine household work, with 20% of patients requiring frequent work breaks. About 40% of patients reported social stigma as a factor that hindered them from returning to work. Conclusion Most patients return to household work post-treatment. Fatigue, pain and social stigma were the most common barriers to return to employment. Patient-reported outcomes and functional assessments can enable better survivorship care.

© Rai R; Malik M; Valiyaveettil D; Ahmed SF; Basalatullah M. Ecancermedicalscience. 17:1533, 2023.

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pain neuroscience education compared to biomedical pain education after breast cancer surgery on (1) work status, (2) time until work resumption, and (3) change in return-to-work expectations up to 18 months post-surgery. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to either pain neuroscience education (intervention group) or biomedical pain education (control group) in addition to a standard physical therapy program after surgery for breast cancer. The first four months following surgery, one to two physiotherapy sessions and three educational sessions were scheduled. After, two educational sessions and two physiotherapy sessions were held at six and eight months postoperatively. All outcomes were assessed at four, six, eight, 12 and 18 months postoperatively. Results At 12 months, in the intervention group, 71% of the women returned to work compared to 53% in the control group (18% points difference, 95%CI:-0.1 to 35;p = 0.07). At 18 months, the differences decreased to 9% points, 95%CI:-26 to 7;p = 0.35). Neither time until work resumption (p = 0.46) nor change in estimation of own ability to return to work up to 18 months postoperatively (p = 0.21) significantly differed between both groups. Conclusion No significant differences were found regarding return to work outcomes between women receiving pain neuroscience education versus biomedical pain education after breast cancer surgery. Further research is warranted to explore the potential role of pain neuroscience education in return-to-work interventions following breast cancer surgery.

© De Groef A; Van der Gucht E; Devoogdt N; Smeets A; Bernar K; Morlion B; Godderis L; De Vrieze T; Fieuws S; Meeus M; Dams L. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation.  2023 May 12.

Purpose Return to work (RTW) after cancer can be modulated by psychosocial factors, including a reordering of one's life values, with more emphasis on private life than work-life. This change in patients' outlook on work-life is however poorly understood. Methods We used data from a French cohort (CANTO, NCT01993498) of women diagnosed with stage I-III primary breast cancer (BC) prospectively assessing life priorities between work and private life at diagnosis and 2 years after diagnosis. We identified women who reported a shift in life values toward private life, and we investigated the clinical, demographic, work-related, and psychosocial determinants of this change using logistic regressions. Results Overall, 46% (N = 1097) of the women had reordered their life priorities toward private life 2 years after diagnosis. The factors positively associated with this shift included being diagnosed with stage III BC, perceiving one's job as not very interesting, being an employee/clerk (vs. executive occupation), perceiving no support from the supervisor at baseline, perceiving negative interferences of cancer in daily life, and perceiving a positive impact from experiencing cancer. Depressive symptoms were negatively associated with this shift. Conclusion After BC, there seems to be an important reordering of life values, with more emphasis on private life. This change is influenced by clinical determinants, but also by work-related and psychosocial factors. Implications for cancer survivors: Stakeholders should consider this change in a patient's outlook on work-life as much as the classical physical late effects when designing post-BC programs to support RTW.

© Caumette E; Di Meglio A; Vaz-Luis I; Charles C; Havas J; de Azua GR; Martin E; Vanlemmens L; Delaloge S; Everhard S; Martin AL; Merimeche AD; Rigal O; Coutant C; Fournier M; Jouannaud C; Soulie P; Cottu PH; Tredan O; Menvielle G; Dumas A. Journal of Cancer Survivorship. 17(3):694-705, 2023 Jun.

Purpose Interventions to support work participation in cancer survivors (CSs) have shown limited effectiveness. Applying a behavioral change framework (e.g., stages of change) could make work participation interventions for CSs more timely and tailored. We aimed to explore the application of the stages of change framework to work participation support for CSs and to generate stage-specific intervention content. Methods Eighteen experts (e.g., occupational physicians, reintegration consultants) were individually interviewed, and three focus groups with CSs (n = 6, n = 5, n = 4) were conducted. Data were analyzed along the six work-related behavioral change stages purported by the readiness for return to work framework, which is based on the stages of change. Results The following themes were identified: (1) pre-contemplation: emotional support and staying connected-encourage contact with the employer/colleagues; (2) contemplation: considering return to work is stressful-facilitate the deliberation process; (3) preparation self-evaluative: assess current capabilities-seek guidance from, e.g., occupational physicians; (4) preparation behavioral: planning return to work-allow for personalized solutions and encourage supervised return to work; (5) uncertain maintenance: guard against overload-train self-efficacy strategies and communication tactics; and (6) proactive maintenance: accept and prepare for the long term. Conclusions Our results support the potential utility of tailoring CSs' work participation support along the stages of change. Implications for cancer survivors: We provided recommendations for intervention content and developed a stage-specific work participation intervention for CSs, the effectiveness of which will be evaluated in an upcoming randomized controlled trial.

© Zegers AD; Coenen P; Bultmann U; van Hummel R; van der Beek AJ; Duijts SFA. Journal of Cancer Survivorship. 17(3):706-719, 2023 Jun.

Purpose Self-employed individuals with cancer face unique challenges that have not been fully explored in previous research. For example, while some studies conducted in Europe have suggested that self-employed workers with cancer experience more adverse health and work-related outcomes compared to salaried workers, the specific manners in which cancer affects the health, work, and businesses of self-employed individuals remain inadequately understood. This lack of understanding represents a crucial gap in the literature, as self-employed individuals make up a significant portion of the workforce in many countries, including Canada. Methods To address this gap, a qualitative interpretive description study was undertaken to explore the experiences of 23 self-employed Canadians diagnosed with cancer from six provinces, with the aim of generating insights into the unique challenges faced by this population. The interviews were conducted in the language chosen by the participants from the two official languages of Canada, namely English and French. Results Using reflexive thematic analysis, four major themes and twelve subthemes were generated from the participants' shared accounts that reflected the impact of cancer on self-employed Canadians' physical, cognitive, and psychological function, affecting their work ability and their ability to maintain their business and financial well-being. Participants in the study also shared strategies they used to continue working and maintain their business during their cancer experience.  Conclusion This study sheds light on the impact of cancer on self-employed individuals and provides insight into the experiences of self-employed individuals with cancer that can inform the development of interventions to support this population.

© Maheu C; Parkinson M; Wong C; Yashmin F; Longpré C. Current Oncology. May2023, Vol. 30 Issue 5, p4586-4602.

Traumatisme crânien cérébral léger (TCCL)

Purpose 1) To examine access and adherence to the Berlin (2016) recommendations for resuming physical and intellectual activities after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) (including an exploration of barriers and facilitators). 2) To assess post-mTBI symptoms in relation to recommendation adherence. Method 73 participants who sustained a mTBI completed an online survey with questions about access and adherence to recommendations and validated measures of symptoms. Results Almost all participants had received recommendations from a health professional after their mTBI. Two thirds of recommendations reported had at least moderate correspondence with the Berlin (2016) recommendations. The vast majority of participants reported weak or partial adherence to these recommendations and only 15.7% reported complete adherence. Overall, adherence to recommendations explained a significant portion of the variance in the severity and number of unresolved post-mTBI symptoms. The most common barriers were: being in a critical period for school or work, pressure to return to work or school, screen use, and presence of symptoms. Conclusions Sustained efforts are required to disseminate appropriate recommendations after mTBI. Clinicians should support patients in eliminating barriers to recommendation adherence, as greater adherence may facilitate recovery.

© Poulin-Lapierre SE; Beaulieu-Bonneau S; Goulet C; Cairns K; Predovan D; Ouellet MC. Brain Injury. 1-11, 2023 May 24.

Purpose Individuals who have sustained mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with a protracted course of recovery may experience long-lasting somatic, cognitive, and emotional symptoms affecting activities of daily living. There is limited knowledge regarding individuals' lived experiences with treatments and advice provided. Objective: To explore how individuals with mTBI describe and make sense of their injury, recovery process, and their experiences with various treatment approaches. Methods Eight participants with mTBI were recruited from the intervention group in an ongoing randomized controlled trial regarding return-to-work. They were interviewed once after treatment delivery using a qualitative hermeneutical approach. Thematic analysis was applied, and findings are discussed in light of a salutogenic theory. Results Participants expressed uncertainty regarding conflicting advice they received in the early phase of recovery. Three main themes were developed: (1) "Ambiguity and hope"; (2) "Uncertainty concerning activity and rest"; and (3) "To become the person I used to be vs. to become a new version of myself." Conclusion The findings showed that the participants experienced both uncertainty and hope for further recovery. The recovery process is challenged by the variability of TBI symptoms that affects participation in everyday life, as well as the conflicting advice received by the participants.

© Linnestad AM; Løvstad M; Groven KS; Howe EI; Fure SCR; Spjelkavik Ø; Sveen U. Neuropsychological rehabilitation, 2023 May; Vol. 33 (4), pp. 592-612.