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Consultez les résultats de notre veille scientifique de février 2023!

Incapacité et retour au travail

Purpose This study aimed to explore (1) whether self-reported assessment on work-related functioning, workability, return-to-work (RTW) self-efficacy, and expectation was useful in the professionals' assessment of sick-listed workers and could guide referral to interventions and (2) whether self-reporting in addition to "usual practice" could improve the RTW dialog and involvement in case management. Methods The qualitative study took place in two municipal job centers in 2021. The assessment was based on the Work Rehabilitation Questionnaire, RTW-Self-efficacy Scale-19, and single items of self-rated health, workability, and RTW expectations. Sick-listed workers (n = 36) were interviewed by telephone. Three focus-group interviews were conducted with professionals who had used the questionnaire. Data were coded and analyzed thematically. Results Three themes with seven subthemes emerged: (1) accessibility; (2) one tool in the RTW toolbox (subthemes: a supplementary tool, a tool for reflection, facilitating interdisciplinary communication, and enhancing active participation); and (3) the value of "ticking boxes" (subthemes: good days, bad days, the issue of power, and the cultural meaning of words). Conclusion The professionals would not recommend the present questionnaire for use during their rehabilitation team meeting for assessment, interdisciplinary communication, or choice of interventions. However, using the parts assessing RTW self-efficacy and expectation combined with a dialog may be of value early in the RTW process. The self-reporting assessment tool was perceived to be meaningful to some sick-listed workers, as it provided reflections on important aspects of the RTW process. Some workers believed that it might contribute to the rehabilitation team, and thus, it could improve their involvement.

© Momsen AH; Tonnesen M; Zwicky-Hauschild B; Nielsen CV; Escorpizo R; Langagergaard V; Stapelfeldt CM. Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences. 3:971574, 2022.

Purpose Workplace sickness absence is a major public health and economic problem, and common mental disorders (CMDs) such as anxiety and depression are associated with particularly high rates of long-term sickness absence. Effective return-to-work (RTW) interventions are required. This pilot study investigates the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of a new therapist-assisted Web-based RTW intervention (Workable) for injured workers on sick leave for a psychological or physical injury. Methods A single-group open pilot trial design was used, with assessments at pre-treatment and post-treatment. The intervention consisted of 6 weeks of online modules and 6 coaching calls from a psychologist. Results A total of 13 participants were recruited and 9 completed all questionnaires. Program adherence was high, with 92% of participants completing the 6-week intervention. Participants reported high levels of intervention satisfaction and ease of use. There were large and significant reductions between pre- and post-treatment on measures of depression, anxiety, stress, and workdays missed over the past four weeks, along with a significant increase in self-reported work ability. Conclusion These results suggest that Workable is a feasible and acceptable intervention for injured workers, with the potential to improve mental health and RTW outcomes. A randomized controlled trial is required to determine the efficacy of the intervention.

© Crawford J; Spence J; Lovegrove T; Tam E; Collins D; Harvey SB; Deady M. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health 20(3), 2023 Jan 30.

Purpose Synthesising evidence of the effects of interventions to improve work participation among people with health problems is currently difficult due to heterogeneity in outcome measurements. A core outcome set for work participation is needed. Methods Following the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials methodology, we used a five-step approach to reach international multistakeholder consensus on a core outcome set for work participation. Five subgroups of stakeholders took part in two rounds of discussions and completed two Delphi voting rounds on 26 outcomes. A consensus of >=80% determined core outcomes and 50%-80% consensus was required for candidate outcomes. Results Fifty-eight stakeholders took part in the Delphi rounds. Core outcomes were: 'any type of employment including self-employment', 'proportion of workers that return to work after being absent because of illness' and 'time to return to work'. Ten candidate outcomes were proposed, among others: 'sustainable employment', 'work productivity' and 'workers' perception of return to work'. Conclusion As a minimum, all studies evaluating the impact of interventions on work participation should include one employment outcome and two return to work outcomes if workers are on sick leave prior to the intervention.

© Ravinskaya M; Verbeek JH; Langendam M; Madan I; Verstappen SMM; Kunz R; Hulshof CTJ; Hoving JL; Delphi participants. BMJ Open. 13(2):e069174, 2023 Feb 15.

Purpose The aging workforce influences employability and health of the working population, with new challenges emerging. The focus has shifted from return to work only, to enhancing ability to stay at work. It is unclear whether factors that influence return to work (RTW) also apply to preserving health and helping workers stay at work (SAW). Study objectives were to identify factors contributing to SAW among industrial workers and map identified factors to the Arena of Work Disability Prevention model (WDP-Arena, a commonly used RTW model) to identify agreements and differences. Methods Scoping review; eight databases were searched between January 2005- January 2020. Manuscripts with SAW as outcome were included; manuscripts with (early) retirement as outcome were excluded. Factors contributing to SAW were mapped against the components of the WDP-Arena. Results Thirteen manuscripts were included. Most results aligned with the WDP-Arena. These were most often related to the Workplace and Personal system. Compared to RTW, in industrial workers fewer factors related to the Legislative and Insurance system or Health Care system were relevant for SAW. Societal/cultural/political context was not studied. Multidimensional factors (workability, vitality at work, balanced workstyle, general health, dietary habits) were related to SAW but did not align with components in the WDP-Arena. Conclusion Most factors that determine SAW in industrial workers could be mapped onto the WDP- Arena model. However, new influencing factors were found that could not be mapped because they are multidimensional. The life-course perspective in SAW is more evident than in RTW. Many elements of the Legislative and Insurance system and the Health Care system have not been studied.

© Six Dijkstra MWMC; Bieleman HJ; Soer R; Reneman MF; Gross DP. Occupational Health Science. 2023 Feb.

Trouble musculosquelettique

Purpose Return-to-work processes involve many stakeholders who need to cooperate to best support the person on sick leave. Yet, there is little knowledge of how workers sick listed due to back pain experience navigating between stakeholders. This study aimed to explore how Danish workers on sick leave due to back pain experience navigating between the involved stakeholders, focusing on settings related to social work, health care and workplace. Methods Sixteen individual semi-structured interviews were conducted and data analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Analysis resulted in three themes. 1) 'Meeting the system" where establishing a positive relationship with the social worker was hampered by a negative perception of the job centre. This perception was initiated by the convening letter and accentuated by physical meetings being experienced as a waste of time. 2) In 'Navigating between systems' some participants lacked support from professionals to navigate the role as messenger between the job centre and health care system. 3) In 'The workplace - a familiar arena' workers experience the workplace as a familiar arena, even if negative decisions were made. Analysis additionally revealed that patients' return-to-work processes could be divided into two types, namely complex and smooth. Conclusion The initial contact from the job centre seems pivotal for the following return-to-work process. The main challenges experienced by sick listed workers were related to the job centre and to being a messenger between job centre and health care, not to their work place and the decisions made there.

© Poulsen AG; Rolving N; Hubeishy MH; Ortenblad L. Work.  2023 Feb 03.

Purpose Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasingly common in younger patients, who are more likely to be working preoperatively. There is a need for an updated review of the literature regarding the rate and time to return to work (RTW), which is important when counseling patients, and also from an economic standpoint. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was performed on January 20, 2022, and studies reporting the rate and/or time to RTW after THA were included. Two authors independently selected relevant papers. RTW was extracted and analyzed using fixed-effects or random-effects models where appropriate. Results A total of 48 studies were included in the final analysis. We found that 70.7% of patients were working after primary THA. Among patients who were working before surgery, this rate increases to 87.9%, while 28.1% of patients who were not working preoperatively started working after surgery. Younger patients were more likely to RTW, while patients with a physically demanding job were less likely to RTW. Minimally invasive techniques were reported to yield a higher rate of RTW and an earlier time to RTW. Conclusion We found that the majority of patients return to work after THA, and some patients are able to start working after surgery. Compared to previous reviews, patients seem to have a higher rate and earlier RTW. The overall trend of the literature suggests that patients are returning to work earlier and at a higher rate compared to previous reviews.

© Soleimani M; Babagoli M; Baghdadi S; Mirghaderi P; Fallah Y; Sheikhvatan M; Shafiei SH. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery. 18(1):95, 2023 Feb 12.

Purpose Interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation programs (IPRPs) help people with chronic pain improve their health and manage their work; however, the way IPRPs address sick leave could be improved. Although work interventions can be a part of IPRP, it is not well known how and to what extent. This study explores the frequency of work interventions and the characteristics of patients who participate in work interventions as part of IPRP at specialist pain rehabilitation departments in Sweden. In addition, this study explores the association between participation in work interventions and change in patients' self-rated work ability after IPRP. Methods Data from the Swedish quality registry for pain rehabilitation (SQRP), which includes 3809 patients between 2016 and 2018, were analysed with descriptive statistics and regression analyses. Results The results indicate a high participation rate in work interventions (90%). Some differences were evident concerning characteristics of patients who participated in different work interventions. The return-to-work (RTW) plan, the most frequently used work intervention, had the strongest association with change in self-rated work ability after IPRP. However, the effect sizes were small, and the initial score best explained the change. Furthermore, there were differences between employed and unemployed patients and employment had a positive association with change in self-rated work ability. Conclusion More research is needed to understand IPRP's mechanisms and work interventions to support patients with chronic pain, reduce sick leave, and manage work. Employment status needs to be considered and interventions should be tailored to match the individual needs.

© Svanholm F; Bjork M; Lofgren M; Gerdle B; Hedevik H; Molander P. Journal of pain research. 16:421-436, 2023.

Purpose This metasynthesis contributes to an understanding of the experiences, perceptions, and attitudes of employees on managing chronic musculoskeletal disorders (CMSDs) at work. Many studies in this field are concerned with prevention or return-to-work (RTW) programmes. However, the purpose of this review was to synthesise evidence that only focuses on the employees' management of their CMSDs at work. Methods The SPIDER framework was used to structure the question "How do employees with CMSDs experience the management of their condition in the workplace"? The literature search focused on articles published between 2011 and 2021, and the search was conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO. The review identified nine articles that explored employees' experiences of managing CMSDs at work. Thematic synthesis was used to create analytic themes which provided a more in-depth discussion of these experiences. Results The identified themes were: 'employees actively seek ways to manage their conditions', 'influence of work environment on employees with CMSDs' and 'optimising the relationship between employees and managers. Conclusion This metasynthesis suggests that the ability to negotiate workplace support and manage CMSDs at work is influenced by the cultural and social environment of the organisation. Effective communication, care and trust between the employee is needed. The review also illustrated the need for healthcare professionals to provide support to employees at work.

© Skamagki G; Carpenter C; King A; Wåhlin C. Journal of occupational rehabilitation, 2023 Feb 27

Santé mentale

Purpose Victims of workplace bullying represent a group characterised by severe negative health complaints at risk of losing their foothold in working life. To date, very few studies have investigated the effect of psychological treatment of the health-related problems often facing victims of bullying. The aim was to investigate if victims of workplace bullying suffering from common mental disorders (CMD) benefit from clinical treatment for their mental health problems at an outpatient clinic treating patients using Metacognitive or Cognitive Behavioural Therapy with work-focus. Criteria were symptom reduction and change in workplace participation. Comparisons were made between the victims of workplace bullying with CMD, a wait-list control group consisting of patients who had also been exposed to bullying yet now awaiting treatment, and other patients not exposed to bullying. Methods The sample comprised of 405 patients from an outpatient clinic in Norway. The study used a naturalistic observational design and data was collected pre-treatment and post-treatment. Results The results showed the treatment to be effective in symptom reduction for victims of bullying to a similar degree as patients otherwise not exposed to bullying. Even more, victims receiving treatment had a larger improvement compared to the wait-list control group (p < 0.001). Yet, among patients on sick leave pre-treatment, fewer victims of bullying were fully working by the end of treatment compared to the patients not exposed to workplace bullying. Conclusion The findings provide ground for optimism for this treatment as an efficient way of dealing with the aftermath of workplace bullying.

© Aarestad SH; Harris A; Hjemdal O; Gjengedal RGH; Osnes K; Sandin K; Reme SE; Hannisdal M; Einarsen SV. Work. 73(4):1379-1391, 2022.

Purpose People with depression and anxiety disorder may experience occupational performance issues (OPIs). Further knowledge about these issues longitudinally and about potential differences between people is valuable. Aim: To explore experienced OPIs longitudinally in a sample living with depression and/or anxiety disorder participating in occupational therapy and varying in terms of their work situation. Methods The Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) was completed by 54 participants with depression and/or anxiety at four measure-points from baseline to one-year after participation in occupational therapy. The participants constituted three groups: continuously on sick leave (SL), returned to work within a year and continuing working. Descriptive and non-parametric analysis was used. Results Participants in all groups identified OPIs in all occupational areas in the COPM. All groups increased their occupational performance and satisfaction with their occupational performance in the area socialisation. Each group also made improvements in relation to other occupational areas, varying between the groups. Conclusions OPIs and improvements were identified among the participants regardless of them being on SL, returning to work or working. The diverse nature of OPIs and improvements in the clients indicate the relevance of occupational therapy.

© Wagman P; Hakansson C; Gunnarsson AB. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 30(2):159-169, 2023 Feb.

Purpose Common mental disorders (CMDs) are currently a major cause of long-term sick leave, with women being most affected. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), we aimed to describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a new questionnaire to measure women's beliefs about return to work (RTW) after long-term sick leave for CMDs. Methods Data were collected in central Sweden from women on long-term sick leave (2- 24 months) for CMDs. The questionnaire was developed by conducting an elicitation study with 20 women and included both direct and indirect measures. Subsequently, 282 women participated in a psychometric evaluation and 35 of them in a test-retest procedure. Psychometric properties were evaluated by determining reliability (internal consistency [Cronbach's alpha] and test-retest stability [intraclass correlation coefficient]), construct validity (exploratory factor analysis) and content validity. Results The development resulted in 60 questionnaire items. Content validity assessment showed that the women overall found it easy to complete the questionnaire. Reliability analyses showed satisfactory results for both direct and indirect measures, with a few exceptions. Factor analyses of the indirect scales showed that items were generally in line with the TPB, but that items related to life as a whole/personal life and items related to work were separated into two different factors. Conclusion The questionnaire, called the RTW Beliefs Questionnaire, showed promising results and can among women with CMDs be considered useful, especially the scales for direct measures. This questionnaire gives opportunity to identify new potential predictors for RTW.

© Hedlund A; Boman E; Kristofferzon ML; Nilsson A. Work.  2023 Feb 13.

Purpose Integration of vocational rehabilitation and mental healthcare has shown some effect on work participation at 1-year follow-up after sick leave with depression and anxiety. Methods We aimed to study the effect on work and health outcomes at 2-year follow-up, why we performed a randomized trial was conducted to study the effectiveness of integrated intervention (INT) compared to service as usual (SAU) and best practice mental healthcare (MHC). Results We included 631 participants, and at 24-month follow-up, we detected no differences in effect between INT and SAU. Compared to MHC, INT showed faster return-to-work (RTW) rates (p = 0.044) and a higher number of weeks in work (p = 0.024). No symptom differences were observed between the groups at 24 months. Conclusion In conclusion, compared to SAU, INT was associated with a slightly higher work rate reaching borderline statistical significance at 12-month follow-up and lower stress levels at 6-month follow-up. The disappearance of relative effect between 12 and 24 months may be explained by the fact that the intervention lasted less than 12 months or by delayed spontaneous remission in the SAU group after 12 months. Despite the lack of effect at long-term follow-up, INT still performed slightly better than SAU overall. Moderate implementation difficulties, may partly explain the absence of the hypothesized effect. Integrated intervention, as implemented in this trial, showed some positive effects on mid-term vocational status and short-term stress symptom levels. However, these effects were not sustained beyond the duration of the intervention.

© Hoff A; Poulsen RM; Fisker JP; Hjorthøj C; Nordentoft M; Christensen U; Bojesen AB; Eplov LF, Journal of occupational rehabilitation, 2023 Feb 27

Purpose This study examines the feasibility and acceptability of an AI-led digital mental health intervention in a Workers' Compensation (WC) program, Wysa for Return to Work. Methods Self-reported demographic data and responses to psychosocial screening questions were analyzed alongside participants' app usage through which four key outcomes were measured: recruitment rate, onboarding rate, retention, and engagement. Results The data demonstrated a high need for psychosocial interventions among injured workers, especially women, young adults, and those with high severity injuries. Those with more psychosocial risk factors had a higher rate of onboarding, retention, and engagement, and those with severe injuries had higher retention. Conclusions Our study concluded that Wysa for Return to Work, the AI-led digital mental health intervention that delivers a recovery program using a digital conversational agent, is feasible and acceptable for a return-to-work population.

© Iglesias M; Sinha C; Vempati R; Grace SE; Roy M; Chapman WC; Rinaldi ML. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 65(2):e93-e99, 2023 Feb


Purpose Several studies have identified the main barriers and facilitators that breast cancer survivors experience in the return to work (RTW). Methods The authors conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions with a group of female non-metastatic breast cancer survivors (n = 6), a group of health professionals from different medical specialties (n = 8), and a third group of company managers mainly composed of human resources managers (n = 7). The study was carried out between March and December 2021 in Zaragoza (Spain). Transcripts were analyzed using inductive content analysis to identify work-related barriers and facilitators and coded by the research team. Results Barriers identified included physical and cognitive symptoms, psychosocial problems, lack of knowledge and coordination (health professional, patients, and managers), legal vacuum, physical change, time constraints, work characteristics (lower skilled jobs), unsupportive supervisors and coworkers, family problems and self-demand. Facilitators included family and work support, physical activity and rehabilitation, personalized attention, interdisciplinary collaboration, legal advice for workers, knowledge about breast cancer in companies, positive aspects of work, elaboration of protocols for RTW in women with breast cancer. Conclusion RTW in working women with breast cancer requires a personalized and holistic view that includes the perspectives of patients, healthcare professionals and company managers.

© Marinas-Sanz R; Iguacel I; Maqueda J; Minguez L; Alquezar P; Andres R; Perez E; Sousa R; Moreno-Atahonero E; Sole D; Guemes A; Martinez-Jarreta B. Cancers. 15(3), 2023 Jan 31.

Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the work ability and its associated factors in patients with glioma (II, III) and breast cancer after 6 (T0) and 12 (T1) months from surgery. Methods A total of 99 patients were evaluated with self-reported questionnaires at T0 and T1. Correlation and Mann-Whitney tests were used to investigate the association between work ability and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. The Wilcoxon test was used to investigate the longitudinal change in work ability. Results Our sample showed a decrease in work ability level between T0 and T1. Work ability was associated with emotional distress, disability, resilience, and social support in glioma III patients at T0, and with fatigue, disability, and clinical treatments in patients with breast cancer at T0 and T1. Conclusion Work ability levels decreased in patients with glioma and breast cancer and were associated with different psychosocial factors after surgery. Their investigation is suggested to facilitate the return to work.

© Silvaggi F; Mariniello A; Leonardi M; Silvani A; Lamperti E; Di Cosimo S; Folli S; Trapani A; Schiavolin S. Journal of Health Psychology. 13591053231151286, 2023 Feb 18.

Purpose More women are returning to work following breast cancer treatment. Our team designed 'Beyond Cancer', a multimodal rehabilitation program to support breast cancer survivors to return to work. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the intervention from the breast cancer survivor, employer and occupational rehabilitation provider perspectives. Methods The feasibility design focused on implementation, acceptability and preliminary indications of efficacy. Primary outcome measures included work status, work capacity and perceived support at work. Responses were compared with an historical usual care group of mixed cancer survivors. Results The tailored intervention was delivered over 33 weeks (on average) by trained occupational rehabilitation consultants. Eighty-four women with breast cancer (mean age = 50.8 years, SD = 8.24) who were unable to work in their pre-diagnosis capacity for >3 months participated. Results provided preliminary indications of efficacy for primary work outcomes, including work capacity relative to the historical usual care group, and some secondary biopsychosocial variables (physical fatigue, return to work expectations). The intervention was acceptable, demonstrated strong participant engagement and high satisfaction. Conclusion Feasibility has been demonstrated for this multimodal intervention focused on returning to sustainable work for women with breast cancer. Future research is required with people diagnosed with other cancer types to demonstrate broader implementation.

© Sheppard DM; O'Connor M; Jefford M; Lamb G; Frost D; Ellis N; Halkett GKB. Current Oncology. 30(2): 2249-2270, Feb2023.

Purpose Financial toxicity significantly impacts many patients, especially cancer survivors. We evaluated the association of unemployment as a major contributor to financial toxicity with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) assessing multiple illness experience domains in a primary CNS tumor (PCNST) cohort. Methods Patient and disease characteristics and PROs measuring symptom burden, interference, psychologic distress, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from participants enrolled an IRB-approved observational study at the US National Institutes of Health's Neuro-Oncology Branch were collected between 9/2016-12/2019. Descriptive statistics, tests of association, and comparison of group means were used to describe and evaluate PROs. Results Of the 277 participants diagnosed with a PCNST, 57% were male and 43% were female. Participants reported their race as White, non-Hispanic (78%); White, Hispanic/Latino (9%); Asian (7%); Black (4%); Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (1%); other (2%) with 8% missing. The median age of the overall cohort was 45 years (range 18-74). Hispanic participants in the overall sample were 2.3 times more likely, and in the brain tumor group 3.2 times more likely, to report unemployment ( p =.043, OR=2.3, 95% CI [1.0, 5.4] and p =.008, OR=3.2, 95% CI [1.3, 7.9], respectively). The 77 (28%) individuals unemployed due to tumor reported more functional impairment with walking, washing, dressing, performing usual activities, and reduced HRQOL (p<.001). More unemployed participants in the total sample reported moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (25%) than those employed (8%) (X 2 (1)=13.9, p <.001, OR=3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.8]) and more moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms (30%) than those employed (15%) (X 2 (1)=7.8, p =.005, OR=2.4, 95% CI [1.3, 4.5]). Unemployed brain tumor participants reported on average 3 more symptoms as moderate-to-severe compared to those employed (t(83)=-4.0, 95% CI [Formula: see text] difference [-5, -2], p <.001, Hedge's g=.70). Conclusion Being unemployed due to a PCNST strongly correlated with high symptom burden, functional impairment, psychological distress and reduced HRQOL which may be impediments to returning to work that warrant intervention. Lack of employer-based health insurance and reduced earnings are financial sequelae of unemployment superimposed on the physical, social, and cognitive effects of living with a PCNST. Innovations to screen for and address financial toxicity and its contributing factors are needed.

© Leeper HE; Vera E; Christ A; Acquaye A; Briceno N; Choi A; Grajkowska E; Jammula V; Levine J; Lindsley M; Reyes J; Roche KN; Rogers JL; Timmer M; Boris L; Burton E; Lollo N; Panzer M; Penas-Prado M; Pillai V; Polskin L; Theeler BJ; Wu J; Gilbert MR; Armstrong TS, Neurology, 2023 Feb 08.

Accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC)

Purpose The Return-to-Work Assessment Scale (RAS) was developed in 2021 by Ibikunle et al. to assess return to work among post stroke survivors. The aim of this study was to describe how the conceptual (flag model and ICF) and theoretical framework (C-OAR-SE) were used in developing the RAS. Method The development of the RAS consisted of three phases: (i) Initial item generation (ii) face and content validity (iii) Psychometric testing. With each phase embracing the flag model, international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and the C-OAR-SE an acronym for the six aspects of the theory: 'C' [construct definition], 'OAR' [object representation, attribute classification, and rater entity identification], and 'SE' [selection of item type and answer scale, as well as enumeration. Results A triangulated approach drawn on three separate theories and models. Phase one was developed by using the Flag model which provided the semi structured open ended questions that materialized into the draft instrument while phases two and three were developed using the ICF and the C-OAR-SE. The scale consists of two sections, A and B. Section A comprises general information about post-stroke survivors, which would not be scored, while section B includes three parts that are important to consider when deciding to return to work. Conclusion An instrument called RAS was developed, an excellent, internally consistent, as well as reliable tool that has demonstrated good group and structural validity.

© Ibikunle PO; Rhoda A; Smith MR; Useh U. Work. 2023 Jan 23.

Purpose Work is an occupation of great concern for younger stroke survivors. Given the high rate of people not working after stroke, there is a need to explore work after stroke from a long-term perspective, including not just an initial return to work, but also the ability to retain employment and how this may affect everyday life after stroke. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore experiences relating to work and to work incapacity among long-term stroke survivors. Method This study used thematic analysis on data gathered through individual semi-structured interviews with long-term stroke survivors. Results The analysis resulted in four themes that together comprised the main theme 'The centrality of work in everyday life', containing descriptions of how everyday life was affected by aspects of work both for those who did work and those who did not return to work after stroke. Conclusion The results highlight the importance of addressing return to work not just as an isolated outcome but as part of everyday life after stroke. The results indicate a need for a more flexible approach to supporting return to work that continues past the initial return.

© Wassenius C; Claesson L; Blomstrand C; Jood K; Carlsson G. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 1-11, 2023 Feb 01.

Purpose Rates of return-to-work after stroke are low, yet work is known to positively impact people's wellbeing and overall health outcomes. Objective: To understand return-to-work trajectories, barriers encountered, and resources that may be used to better support participants during early recovery and rehabilitation. Methods The experiences of 31 participants (aged 25-76 years) who had or had not returned to work after stroke were explored. Interview data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis methods within a broader realist research approach. Results Participants identified an early need to explore a changed and changing occupational identity within a range of affirming environments, thereby ascertaining their return-to-work options early after stroke. The results articulate resources participants identified as most important for their occupational explorations. Theme 1 provides an overview of opportunities participants found helpful when exploring work options, while theme 2 explores fundamental principles for ensuring the provided opportunities were perceived as beneficial. Finally, theme 3 provides an overview of prioritized return-to-work service characteristics. Conclusion The range and severity of impairments experienced by people following stroke are broad, and therefore their return-to-work needs are diverse. However, all participants, irrespective of impairment, highlighted the need for early opportunities to explore their changed and changing occupational identity.

© Martin RA; Johns JK; Hackney JJ; Bourke JA; Young TJ; Nunnerley JL; Snell DL; Derrett S; Dunn JA. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 55:jrm00363, 2023 Feb 07.

Traumatisme crânien cérébral léger (TCCL)

Purpose The purpose of this narrative review was to assess work-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) treatment approaches and outcomes. Results Literature indicates that incidence of work-related mTBI is high. Ability to return to work after injury is variable, with differences identified across industry sector, mechanisms of injury, sex, and timely treatment and referral. Additional challenges exist in the context of secondary gains (e.g. financial) and the potential for symptom exaggeration. Emerging evidence from studies outside the United States (US) demonstrate the benefits of proactive assessment and treatment at the time of injury. These benefits can be further augmented by early referral to multidisciplinary treatment teams led by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) physicians. Discussion Opportunities for ongoing research and development of strategies to improve treatment, management, and more timely return to work for patients with occupational mTBI are discussed. Conclusion It is concluded that challenges persist in treatment and management of patients with work-related mTBI as they present unique challenges not seen in those with non-work related mTBIs. The unique position of PM&R and the skills of physiatrists render them poised to lead multidisciplinary treatment teams for these patients and contribute to the development of a new guideline for return to work, with an emphasis on functional recovery.

© Andreae ME; Grafton LM; Hong JS; Vidt ME.  American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation.  2022 Dec 14.

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate return to work (RTW) rates following a single uncomplicated mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) in the post-acute stage in the context of active litigation. More specifically, we sought to determine what psychological and/or cognitive factors predict a RTW after mTBI. Methods Archival data were obtained from a random sample of litigating patients (n = 125; 54% female; mean age: 42.96 (SD = 12.74) who were referred to a private practice for a neuropsychological examination regarding their disability status following a single uncomplicated mTBI. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to assess the predictive value of emotional symptoms and cognition with respect to RTW status. Results Approximately 50% of the sample did not RTW. Attentional deficits (rs = -0.248) and depressive symptoms (rs = 0.248) were significantly associated with RTW. A hierarchical regression analysis found that depressive symptoms (p < .05) were associated with RTW outcomes. Conclusions These findings suggest that individuals with increased depressive symptoms are more likely to demonstrate poor RTW outcomes in the post-acute stages of mTBI. These results are of interest to clinicians as they underscore the importance of screening and early intervention for depressive symptoms following a single uncomplicated mTBI in the post-acute stages in litigating samples.

© Sekely A; Makani A; Dhillon S; Zakzanis KK.  Applied Neuropsychology. Adult. 1-8, 2023 Jan 30.

Purpose Fear avoidance is associated with symptom persistence after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). In this study, we investigated whether fear avoidance was associated with other outcomes such as return to work-related activity (RTW). Methods We analyzed associations between fear avoidance and RTW 6–9 months after mTBI, in two merged prospective mTBI cohorts. Adult participants aged 16 or over (n=175), presenting to outpatient services in New Zealand within 3 months of their injury, who were engaged in work-related activity at the time of injury, were included. Participants completed the Fear Avoidance Behavior after Traumatic Brain Injury (FAB-TBI) questionnaire at enrollment and 6 months later. Associations between FAB-TBI scores and RTW outcome were analyzed using multivariate approaches. Results Overall, 53% of participants had RTW by 6–9 months after mTBI. While early fear avoidance was weakly associated with RTW, persistent high fear avoidance between study assessments or increasing avoidance with time were associated with greater odds of still being off work 6–9 months after injury. Conclusion Pervasive and increasing avoidance of symptom triggers after mTBI were associated with lower rates of RTW 6–9 months after mTBI. Further research is needed to better understand transition points along the recovery trajectory where fear avoidance behaviors fade or increase after mTBI.

© Snell DL; Faulkner JW; Williman JA; Silverberg ND; Theadom A; Surgenor LJ; Hackney J; Siegert RJ. Brain Injury. Feb2023.