Lundi 15 mai 2017
FANG, Tony - Memorial University
The Socioeconomic Benefits of Immigration to Canada
Recent events such as the European refugee crisis, Brexit, and the 2016 US election have drawn intense debates over immigration and refugee policies worldwide. This public lecture first reviews the recent trends in immigration policies and demographic challenges for Newfoundland and Labrador. Drawing experiences from Australia, Canada, and the United States, the economic, social and cultural benefits of immigration will be discussed, supported by empirical evidences of both long-run and short-run impacts of large-scale immigration to Canada. The long-run effects will be focused on innovation and entrepreneurship. The short-run economic indicators have included real GDP and GDP per capita; employment and unemployment; aggregate demand and especially for housing; investment and productivity; and government expenditures, taxes and net government balances for a 10-year simulation period (2012-2021), using the Census data and a macroeconomic model (FOCUS), developed and maintained by the University of Toronto. The national results will be also calibrated for Quebec. The lecture will conclude with the policy implications of the findings and some policy recommendations.
Mardi 23 mai 2017
SHONCHOY, Abu S. - Wagner School of Public Service and Policy, New York University et University of Tokyo (ANNULÉ)
Vendredi 17 mars 2017
MARTIN, Julien - UQAM
Are Clusters Resilient? Evidence from Canadian Textile Industries
(with Kristian Behrens and Brahim Boualam)
We investigate the effect of clusters on the resilience of plants to adverse economic shocks, focusing on the Canadian textile and clothing sector. This sector was strongly spatially concentrated in 2001 and subject to a large industry-specific shock — the end of the Multi Fibre Arrangement — in 2005. Using a difference-in-difference approach, we find no evidence that clusters make plants more resilient. On the contrary, clustered plants are 3% more likely to exit than non-clustered plants, and 0.5% less likely to adapt by switching their main line of business. While smaller specialized clusters tend to perform better than larger diversified ones under "business-as-usual", the reverse holds under "disruption".
Vendredi 31 mars 2017 (15 h 15 - 16 h 45)
LASZLO, Sonia - McGill University
The Impact of Affordable Day Care on Women's Work: Preliminary Findings fom an RCT in a Slum Settlement in Nairobi
(with Shelley Clark, Caroline Kabiru, and Stella Muthuri)
In most parts of the world women shoulder the primary responsibilities associated with caring for their young children. The time and energy women devote to this task may restrict their participation in the paid labor force or engagement in more economically remunerative activities. This study was designed to rigorously test whether expanding access to subsidized and better quality day care to mothers living in a slum community in Nairobi would increase their a) day care utilization, b) engagement with paid activities, and c) earnings. Over 1000 mothers with children aged 1 to 3 were randomized into one of three groups: control, receipt of voucher for free child care, and receipt of voucher for free child care at a quality enhanced child care centre. Forty eight existing child care centres in Korogocho slum were included in our study. Monthly vouchers were given for a full year. Quality enhancement took the form of early childhood education training of existing child care staff. Our preliminary results indicate a high voucher take-up rate and a positive effect on women’s labour market outcomes that is largely driven by an increased labour force participation. Our study is amongst the first to produce rigorous evidence that providing women in resource poor settings with subsidized, quality child care is an effective strategy to improve their labour market outcomes.
Mercredi 28 septembre 2016 (15 h 15 - 16 h 45)
CLAVEAU, François - Université de Sherbrooke
A history of specialties in economics since the late 1950s is constructed on the basis of a large corpus of documents from economics journals. The production of this history relies on a combination of algorithmic methods that avoid subjective assessments of the boundaries of specialties: bibliographic coupling, automated community detection in dynamic networks and text mining. These methods uncover a structuring of economics around recognizable specialties with some significant changes over the time-period covered (1956-2014). Among our results, especially noteworthy are (a) the clearcut existence of 10 families of specialties, (b) the disappearance in the late 1970s of a specialty focused on general economic theory, (c) the dispersal of the econometrics-centered specialty in the early 1990s and the ensuing importance of specific econometric methods for the identity of many specialties since the 1990s, (d) the low level of specialization of individual economists throughout the period in contrast to physicists as early as the late 1960s.
Vendredi 7 octobre 2016
SILVE, Arthur - Université Laval
Putting your neighbor’s house in order: military intervention and institutional cooperation
Conflict in a neighboring country and poor state capacity are both robust predictors of a civil war. This paper examines theoretically the nexus of these two characteristics of conflict. Countries are characterized as belonging to one of three regimes: civil war, repressive, or redistributive, ordered by the level of state capacity necessary to implement them. Conflict in a neighboring country may force an otherwise peaceful country into a civil war. To avoid such an outcome, the peaceful country may have to invest in better institutions, or to help the other country avoid a civil war in the first place. The contagion effect is nonlinear. This yields a pattern of regional clustering of state capacity. Finally, this paper explores lessons for military intervention in fragile regions, as well as institutional cooperation at the regional and multilateral levels.
Vendredi 28 octobre 2016
LEROUX, Justin - HEC Montréal
We introduce basic needs in cost-sharing problems so that agents with higher needs are not penalized, all the while holding them responsible for their consumption. We characterize axiomatically two families of cost-sharing rules, each favoring one aspect|compensation or responsibility|over the other. We also identify specic variants of those rules that protect small users from the cost externality imposed by larger users. Lastly, we show how one can implement these schemes with realistic informational assumptions; i.e., without making explicit interpersonal comparisons of needs and consumption.
Mercredi 23 novembre 2016
GHIAIE, Hamed - Université de Cergy-Pontoise
The effect of intermediary agent on an overlapping generation model with housing is considered in this paper. The intermediary agent roles as a pool to supply the capital needs of firms by pooling deposits and issuing inside equity. Issuing inside equity is costly and the agent is constrained to issue the equity by a fix leverage ratio regulated by the social planner(government). Housing is either on a fixed supply or like good production firms, there are housing production company which produce houses every period. The interest of this paper is to enquire how the regulation on intermediary agent can affect the efficiency of the steady state i.e how it helps the economy move toward an efficient equilibrium. In an overlapping generation model without housing there could be bubbles. Following two kind of bubble (pure bubble and housing bubble) in the literature, the existence of such bubbles and the role of regulatory to hold or remove bubbles are presented.