Micro-nanofabrication

Substrates cleaning

Plasma cleaning

Method: O2 plasma

Substrate size: up to 6 "(150 mm) in diameter

Equipment: Plasmaline oxygen plasma chamber

Comments: "barrel etcher" style room

Chemical cleaning

Method: as needed

Substrate Size: batch processing up to 4 "(100 mm) diameter, individual treatment for larger substrates up to 150 mm

Equipment: wet benches

Comments: Ultrasonic baths, water DI 20 Megohms, water baths, etc.

Thermal treatments

Treatments up to 950 ° C, including up to 30 successive stages, under controlled atmosphere (nitrogen, hydrogenated nitrogen (N₂-H₂ 90-10), oxygen)

Method: RTA, heating by quartz lamps

Substrate size: max. 4 ", compatible with small samples

Equipment: Jipelec Jetfirst computer-controlled

Comments: thermocouple control, rise rate up to 100 ° C / s

Treatments up to 1200 ° C under controlled atmosphere

Method: horizontal oven

Substrate size: max. 6 "

Equipment: Tylan furnace

Comments: N₂ atmosphere or forming gas (H₂ / N₂)

Dry or wet oxidation of Si

Method: thermal

Substrate size: max. 6 "

Equipment: Tylan furnace

Comments: T ° up to 1050 ° C

Thermal treatments under controlled atmosphere

Method: thermal

Substrate size: max. 3 "

Equipment: Sentrotech oven

Comments: T ° up to 1200 ° C, atmosphere N₂, forming gas H₂ / N₂

Lithography

Photolithography DUV

Method: Exposure at 250 nm through a resin mask

Substrate size: small samples up to 100 mm in diameter

Equipment: DUV - Flooder

Photolithography by Direct Writing on Shipley Resin 1800 Series, AZ1518

Method: direct write to the 442 nm laser beam

Substrate size: max. 150 x 150 mm²

Equipment: Direct laser writing system - Photoplotter

Comments: ultimate resolution 0.6 μm, use of other resins possible

3D structure fabrication (up to 32 levels) in Shipley series 1800, AZ-P4903 resins

Method: direct write to the 442 nm laser beam

Substrate size: max. 150 x 150 mm²

Equipment: Direct laser writing system - Photoplotter

Comments: ultimate resolution 0.6 μm, use of other resins possible

Manufacture of chrome masks for standard photolithography

Method: direct write to the 442 nm laser beam

Substrate size: max. 150 x 150 mm²

Equipment: Direct laser writing system - Photoplotter

Comments: ultimate resolution 0.6 μm

Photolithography on Shipley series 1800, SU8, Futurrex, KMPR, AZ-P4903, AZ9200 resins

Method: UV exposure through a mask

Substrate size: max. 3 in.

Equipment: OAI 200 mask aligner

Comments: resolution 0.8 μm, 200 W UV lamp emitting between 220 and 436 nm, max. masks = 4x4 sq. ft., possibility of aligning with small samples, use of other resins possible

Photolithography for lift-off using a bilayer resin comprising a layer of LOR (lift-off resist)

Method: direct writing or use of masks

Substrate size: according to equipment

Equipment: Laser Direct Writing System - Photoplotter, OAI 200 Aligner

High resolution nanolithography on PMMA, ZEP520 (positive resins), QSR5 (negative resin)

Method: Electron Beam Lithography

Equipment: Zeiss 1530 electron microscope

Comments: Assisted with NPGS Direct Write Software

Very high resolution nanolithography on PMMA, ZEP520, QSR5

Method: Electron Beam Lithography

Substrate size: 75 x 75 mm²

Equipment: Zeiss VP scanning electron microscope with field effect source

Comments: Assisted with NPGS Direct Write Software

Very high resolution nanolithography on PMMA, ZEP520, QSR5

Method: Electron Beam Lithography

Substrate size: 100 x 100 mm²

Equipment: Focused ion beam - FIB Zeiss CrossBeam

Comments: Assisted with NPGS Direct Write Software

Nanofabrication by direct electron beam writing

Method: SiDWEL

Substrate size: according to equipment

Equipment: Zeiss VP scanning electron microscope or focused ion beam - FIB Zeiss CrossBeam

Comments: Assisted with NPGS Direct Write Software

Ion implantation

Dopage of type p and n on Si

Method: ion implantation

Substrate size: max. 4 ", compatible with small samples

Equipment: Varian CF3000 Ionic Implant

Comments: gaseous sources for implanted species; substrate temperature 25 at 200 ° C; implantations of H, B, N, Si, P, As, Xe; potential for doping and implantation on materials other than Si, such as GaAs and other semiconductor materials

Deposition

Polysilicon, Si₃N₄

Method: LPCVD

Substrate size: max. 6 in.

Equipment: Tylan Furnace

Al, Au, Cr, Ge, Ni, permalloy, Si, Ti

Method: evaporation by electron gun

Substrate size: max. 4 in.

Equipment: Evaporator with electron gun

Comments: Carousel of 4 crucibles allows the deposit of multilayers without having to break the void; Rotating sample holder; resolution of 0.1 nm on the thickness

Platinum, tungsten or SiOx deposit by plasma-assisted direct writing

Method: focused ion beam

Substrate size: max. 4 ", compatible with small samples

Equipment: Focused ion beam - FIB Zeiss CrossBeam

Comments: ultimate resolution <40 nm

Pt, Au, Cr, Ag, Al, Cu, Ni, Ti, Pd, Ge, B, Si, Mo, Ta, Ir, SiO₂, Al₂O₃, SrF₂, MgF₂, AlF₃

Method: electron gun

Substrate size: max. 4 in.

Equipment: Sloan evaporator

Comments: Carousel of 4 crucibles allows the deposit of multilayers without having to break the void; rotating sample holder; resolution of 0.1 nm on the thickness

Ni-Chrome, Zn, Pb, Bi, Al, Au, AuZn, AuGe, AuSb

Method: Joule evaporation

Substrate size: max. 2 in.

Equipment: Evaporator with electron gun

Au-Pd

Method: Cathodic sputtering - Sputtering

Substrate size: max. 6cm

Equipment: Emitech cathode sputtering

Comments: deposit at room temperature

SiOx, SiN, SiOxNy, amorphous Si

Method: PECVD

Substrate size: max. 8 ", compatible with small samples

Equipment: Vapor Deposition - PECVD - STS

Comments: doping possibilities with boron, germanium or phosphorus

Deposit metals, alloys, insulators

Method: RF sputtering

Substrate Size: Max Diameter 4 in

Equipment: SPT320 cathode sputtering

Comments: 3 targets available for successive layer deposits without breaking the void up to 3 different materials.

Dry etching

Nanogravure by direct writing

Method: focused ion beam

Substrate size: max. 4 ", compatible with small samples

Equipment: FIB Zeiss CrossBeam

Comments: ultimate resolution <20 nm

Nanogravure by XeF₂ assisted direct writing or water vapor

Method: focused ion beam

Substrate size: max. 4 ", compatible with small samples

Equipment: FIB Zeiss CrossBeam

Comments: ultimate resolution <20 nm

Ion milling

Method: unfocused ion beam

Substrate size: max. 3cm

Equipment: ion Tech

Comments: uses an argon plasma

Silicon Etching (Bosch Process, SOI Etching)

Method: high density plasma

Size substrate: up to 100mm diameter, compatible with small samples

Equipment: Plasma Etching System for ASE Silicon STS Multiplex

Etching of III-V compounds and heterostructures and metals

Method: high density plasma

Size substrate: up to 200 mm diameter, compatible with small samples

Equipment: Plasma etching system for III-V

Etching of oxides and other dielectrics

Method: high density plasma

Size substrate: up to 100mm diameter, compatible with small samples

Equipment: Plasma etching system for silicon oxide

Wet etching

Etching of Si, III-V compounds, metals and dielectrics by etching

Method: as needed

Substrate Size: Batch processing for substrate size up to 4 "in diameter. Individual immersion treatment for substrate up to 150mm.

Equipment: wet benches

Comments: vast possibilities of sauces of attack and sizes of substrate

Electrochemical processes

Copper plating

Method: Electrografting of copper in basic solution

Substrate size: max. 4 ", compatible with small samples

Equipment: electrochemical reactor

Comments: metallization of high form factor TSV (up to 1:20)

Chemical grafting of NiB

Method: NiB Electroless

Substrate size: max. 4 ", compatible with small samples

Equipment: electroless module

Comments: up to 80 nm, driver. Use as a barrier to copper diffusion. Use as seed coat for electroplating.

Electrografting of insulating polymer

Method: Electrografting of P4VP in aqueous solution

Substrate size: max. 4 ", compatible with small samples

Equipment: electrochemical reactor

Comments: Insulation of semiconductor substrates. Up to 300 nm thick. Hyper compliant (70% coverage rate in TSV of 5/50 microns). Dielectric properties comparable to SiO2. Interposer / Via-middle / Via-Last compatible.

Integrated processes

Fabrication of heterostructure lasers

Method: gain guidance

NMOS circuits 3μm

Substrate Size: 3 "or 4"

Fabrication and metallization of high form factor TSV for interposing or integration Via-Middle / Via-Last

Fully wet metallization method for achieving shape factor TSVs up to 1:20.

Insulation: P4VP electrografted in aqueous solution

Barrier + Cu sprouting layer: NiB chemical grafting

Copper filling: Electrografting of copper in basic solution

Comments: the use of organic insulation significantly reduces stress around TSVs

Others processes

Production of samples for transmission electron microscopy (micro- and nanotomy)

Method: focused ion beam

Substrate size: max. 4 ", compatible with small samples

Equipment: Focused ion beam - FIB Zeiss CrossBeam

Interdiffusion of quantum wells

Method: implantation and annealing, IR-RTA laser (direct), excimer laser and annealing

Substrate size: max. 4 in.

Equipment: Varian and annealing furnaces, Nd: YAG laser, 193 and 248 nm excimer lasers

Comments: possibility of using ions such as As, P, H, Xe, and others. Sample holder heated up to 200 ° C.

Slice dicing

Method: Dicer Saw

Substrate size: max. 4 in.

Equipment: Micro Automation

Thickness measurement

Method: profilometry

Substrate size: max. 6 in.

Equipment: Profilometer Veeco Dektak 150

Thinning polishing

Method: mechanical polishing

Substrate size: max. 4 in.

Equipment: Ultratech

Comments: polishing facets and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)

Dry or wet oxidation with possibility of chlorine cleaning

Method: thermal

Substrate size: max. 3 inches (150 mm)

Equipment: Tylan Furnace

Comments: T up to 1200 ° C. TCA cleaning could be implemented.

"Ball-bonding" and "wedge-wedge" micro-welding machine with gold and aluminum wires